Rare Lady’s Slipper Orchid Blooms at the San Diego Zoo for First Time in 14 Years


These stunning blooms were the key to the plant’s identity.

An extremely rare orchid has been identified by San Diego Zoo staff after the plant bloomed for the first time in almost 14 years. The rare flower is a Paphiopedilum stonei, (pronounced paff-ee-oh-PED-ih-lum stoney-eye). The endangered plant was confiscated at the border after being illegally transported into the US, and was placed with the Zoo—a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service-designated Plant Rescue Center—where it has been safeguarded and cared for ever since. Plant care staff first identified the orchid as a Paphiopedilum when it arrived at the zoo back in 2001, but it wasn’t until the orchid’s recent bloom that they realized it was a species called Paphiopedilum stonei.

The Paphiopedilum stonei’s peculiar and distinctive pouch-shaped petal gives the orchid species its popular name: lady’s slipper. The species grows on steep limestone cliffs and ledges of western Sarawak, on the island of Borneo. It was first discovered and introduced to private collections in 1862, and today it is critically endangered due to overcollection by orchid poachers. This orchid is one of over 60 different species of lady’s slippers that are part of the San Diego Zoo’s diverse orchid collection.

San Diego Zoo guests can view this orchid—one of over 3,000 orchid plants at the Zoo—during Orchid Odyssey at the Zoo’s Orchid House, on the third Friday of each month from 10 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. However, this flower is expected to be past bloom by then.

Photo taken on Sept. 30, 2015 by Tammy Spratt, San Diego Zoo



How To Grow a Water-Smart Landscape

As California approaches its fifth consecutive year of drought, we all need to take responsibility and actively conserve water. For many plant lovers and homeowners alike, transitioning to a drought-tolerant landscape often means planting cacti and fleshy succulents. But the horticulture experts at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park want you to know that attractive, colorful shrubs and perennials are also great solutions and, once established, particular species are not only easy to maintain, but also drought-tolerant.


We’ve recently embarked on a project to remove and replace a portion of the lawn near the entrance to the Safari Park with a low-water landscape. Keep reading for tips on how you can create a sustainable landscape that promotes water efficiency and conservation.

How To Grow a Water-Smart Landscape by the San Diego Zoo Safari Park's Horituculture Experts

Step 1: Kill and remove grass.  
The first step in transitioning from grass to a water-smart garden involves getting rid of the existing lawn. Spray the area with herbicide and allow the grass to fully die. Water the dead grass until it beings to sprout again and then hit it with another round of herbicide. You might be wondering why any rational person would water dead grass, but this step is extremely important if you want to completely eliminate your water-wasting vegetation. Remove the dead lawn and you’re ready for Step 2.

How To Grow a Water-Smart Landscape by the San Diego Zoo Safari Park's Horituculture Experts

Step 2: Arrange water smart plants.
Like any design project, think of your landscape as a blank canvas. You’ll want to map out your arrangement on paper before you start digging the holes. Organize and incorporate different plant heights and densities to add visual layers to your garden. Group plants by color to give your design a uniform look while also allowing the plants to stand out. Use an odd number of plants and do not place them in straight lines. Read up on the plants and be sure to space them so that they have enough room to grow as high and wide as they should. Large boulders and rocks add dimension and texture.

How To Grow a Water-Smart Landscape by the San Diego Zoo Safari Park's Horituculture Experts

Step 3: Dig and sow.
Plant your colorful shrubs and perennials in their designated places. Our experts say to pre-soak the area that you will be planting and water plants immediately after you put them in the ground. Check the soil moisture levels often and water daily. It’s important to not let the new plantings dry out while their roots are establishing. Instead of using rocks to fill in empty spaces, use mulch; it will not only keep the weeds down, but also helps the moisture stay in the soil. San Diego County offers free mulch to its residents, so a quick Google search can save you money on this step.

Our plant experts used the following species at the Safari Park because they’re non-invasive, long-term performers, and scaled for residential landscapes:

•    Dasylirion longissimum – Mexican Grass Tree
•    Colenema pulchellum ‘Sunset Gold’ – Golden Breath of Heaven
•    Kniphophia – Red Hot Poker
•    Woodwardia fimbriata – Giant Chain Fern
•    Callistemon ‘Bottlepop Neon Pink’ – Neon Pink Bottlebrush
•    Callistemon citrinus – Crimson Bottlebrush
•    Leucophyllum frutescens nube ‘Heavenly’ – Texas Sage
•    Leucophyllum frutescens nube ‘White’ – Texas sage
•    Leonotis leonurus – Lion’s Tail
•    Lavandula ‘Provence’ – Blue Lavandin
•    Hesperaloe parviflora ‘Brakelights’ – Red Yucca ‘Brakelights’
•    Hesperaloe parviflora ‘Red’
•    Hesperaloe parviflora ‘Yellow’ –
•    Caesalpina pulcherrima – Mexican Bird of Paradise
•    Salvia clevlandii ‘Winifred Gilman’ – California Blue Sage
•    Ceanothus ‘Yankee Point’ – California Lilac
•    Sphaeralcea ambigua – Desert Globe Mallow
•    Salvia leucantha – Mexican Bush Sage

These species are readily available at local nurseries, but if you’re having trouble finding them, reach out to our experts at parkhort@sandiegozoo.org.

The San Diego Water Authority has published a Nifty 50 plant guide that promotes water-use efficiency and offers additional information on recommended low-water plant species.

Jenn Beening is the social media planner for San Diego Zoo Global. Read her previous post, 10 Tiger Vines for Global Tiger Day.


Seeding the Future


Transplanting fragile seedlings is a delicate but rewarding task.

As a kid growing up on a ranch in rural Colorado, I never enjoyed sowing seeds or weeding in my mom’s vegetable garden. Ask me to feed the chickens, okay. Fix barbed wire fence? Sure! Do anything involving a horse? You bet! But spend an afternoon with a hoe and unending rows of potatoes? No way. I often reflect on that now when I’m working in the nursery at the Beckman Center leading a team of dedicated volunteers in propagating 20,000 native shrubs over the course of two years. Somehow a switch flipped in my thinking about tending to plants as soon as I started growing natives for restoration. Now I see time spent sowing, transplanting, and watering seedlings as some of the most enjoyable and relaxing aspects of a job that I love. The volunteers and I began propagating almost 20 species in April, and we’ll spend the summer and fall nurturing just over 10,000 plants to grow into half-gallon pots by the winter planting season.


Native plant seeds are sprouted and raised in the nursery area at the Beckman Center for Conservation Research.

The plants that we’re growing here will be the foundation of restored habitat for myriad plants, animals, invertebrates and fungi that depend on quality Coastal Sage Scrub (CSS) habitat. I often find myself enchanted by the tiny, miniature versions of California sagebrush Artemisia californica, bladderpod Peritoma arborea, and white sage Salvia apiana growing in neat rows of pots, just waiting to get big enough to get transplanted into our restoration site at Lake Hodges. I’m excited about this project, which is a mix of applied restoration and theoretical research. We’re restoring over 20 acres of degraded CSS habitat that is part of a critical corridor of preserved land in San Diego County. CSS is declining throughout its narrow range in southern California, so we’re doing all we can to preserve and restore the CSS vegetation at Lake Hodges that was burned in 2007. Lake Hodges is the centerpiece of the San Dieguito River Park, a patchwork of open space extending from the coast near Del Mar up into the mountains of Julian. The Park is home to many of the rare species that contribute to San Diego County’s astounding level of biodiversity.


These seedlings will be used to help restore Coastal Sage Scrub habitat at Lake Hodges.

Diversity is the focus of the research we’re growing plants for. We’re interested in how diversity affects the success of restoration efforts, so we’ll be planting in blocks that vary in number of species. If a block dominated by, say, Eriogonum fasciculatum (California buckwheat) performs better than a mixed block of eight different native shrub species, we may be able to refine our planting methods for future work accordingly. It’s this mix of working closely with native plants while trying to figure out what makes the system in which they’re embedded tick that makes me love restoration. The last eight years of so of growing native plants for work has also made me revisit my childhood dislike of vegetable gardens—I guess I better tell my mother I’ll help her weed those potatoes next time I’m home!

Emily Howe is a research coordinator at the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research.


How to Build a Pollinator Garden

Pollinators are one of Mother Nature’s greatest gardeners, yet many populations continue to decline at an alarming rate. While National Pollinator Week continues to raise awareness, conservation of our precious pollinators is a year-round project. One way you can be a hero for wildlife is by creating a pollinator-friendly habitat in your own yard or community, and invite hummingbirds, bees and butterflies to do what they do best.

Hummingbird | How to Build a Pollinator Garden

For starters, you’ll need a nectar source for your hummingbird guests. They get most of their nectar from tubular blossoms, the perfect shape to accommodate their long, slim beak and tongue. Hummers like bright plants that are open during daylight hours, when the birds are awake and hungry. Sage is an excellent option for these tiny pollinators, not to mention the added bonus of providing your herb pantry with some homegrown goodies.

Bee | How to Build a Pollinator Garden

It’s no secret that honeybee and native bee populations are in trouble. Entertain bees in your outdoor space by planting a diversity of vibrant flowers. It’s extremely important to select plants that do not contain neonicotinoids, a class of insecticides that may contribute to Colony Collapse Disorder. Nowadays, some stores label plants that have been treated with neonicotinoids, but many do not, so it’s best to consult with your local nursery before purchasing.

Bee | How to Build a Pollinator Garden

Including suitable nesting habitat in your landscape can help bolster the struggling populations of native bees. Many are solitary (so you don’t need to worry about a hive) and a good number of species are considered stingless, in case that is a concern. You can purchase ready-made nesting houses for mason and orchard bees online, or make your own.

Butterfly | How to Build a Pollinator Garden

For butterflies, a simple search on Google will help you discover which species are common in your area. Once you know which butterflies live in your region, it’s important to learn about their habitat needs. Certain species require specific host plants to serve as larval food for caterpillars. Choose a variety of colorful, native plants with upward-facing blossoms as they provide a landing pad for butterflies to stop and sip on sweet nectar.

Butterfly | How to Build a Pollinator Garden

Adding a water source for all of your pollinator guests is another great idea. If you’re going to use a bird bath to accomplish this, just be sure to add stones that peek above the surface so your tiny guests (bees) don’t drown.

Do you have any tips for creating a pollinator-friendly garden? Leave them in the comments.


Jenn Beening is the social media planner for San Diego Zoo Global. Read her previous post, 10 Cats You Don’t Want to Cuddle With.


San Diego Zoo Full of Flower Power During Garden Festival 22nd Annual Garden Festival presented by Sparkletts

PrintHorticulturists at the San Diego Zoo are gearing up for the 22nd annual spring Garden Festival presented by Sparkletts. Beautiful Forth Night lilies, sunflowers, orchids, Japanese coral trees, pink hibiscus and yellow daisies are just a few of the flowering plants that guests have the opportunity to see. During the two-day event that takes place on Mother’s Day weekend, Saturday, May 9, and Sunday, May 10, guests can enjoy and learn about the importance of the Zoo’s world-class plant collection. The Zoo’s botanical garden is not only a visual delight of greens, reds, oranges, yellows and blues, its plants and flowers are also the major source for our animal browse.

The Zoo has more than 700,000 plants in its accredited botanical collection including over 900 different types of orchids. To showcase the orchids, the Orchid House, which is only open to guests once a month, will be open both days during Garden Festival.

“There’s a lot of opportunity for guests to learn and gain knowledge they can put to use in their own backyard gardens,” said Dan Simpson, horticulture manager for the San Diego Zoo. “At various spots on Zoo grounds, guests can visit interesting booths and learn about things like what makes up good soil and compost at the ‘Can You Dig It’ booth.”

Guests can also listen to special keeper talks focusing on animals and discover the secret powers of flowers: how they provide primary and supplemental food for our animals. Display booths, open from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. daily, will offer visitors the chance to get gardening tips from horticulture experts with advice to grow by; discover an important native plant, the matilija poppy; learn the what, why, and how of each part of a blossom; and test their flower power.

During the Garden Festival, there will be self-guided walking tours, an educational scavenger hunt focused on flowers and fun activities for kids. Guests can chat with a Zoo insect keeper and may meet a researcher from the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research who is working to save plant species around the world and in our own backyards.

Stop by the Koalafornia Boardwalk at 12:30 or 1:30 p.m. both days to take in a fun, interactive show, where the zany Dr. Zoolittle reveals the secret powers of those garden superheroes, flowers!

Garden Festival is included with Zoo admission and membership. For more information and a schedule of activities, visit www.sandiegozoo.org/gardenfestival.

Bringing species back from the brink of extinction is the goal of San Diego Zoo Global. As a leader in conservation, the work of San Diego Zoo Global includes onsite wildlife conservation efforts (representing both plants and animals) at the San Diego Zoo, the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, and San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, as well as international field programs on six continents. The work of these entities is made accessible to children through the San Diego Zoo Kids network, reaching out through the Internet and in children’s hospitals nationwide. The work of San Diego Zoo Global is made possible by the San Diego Zoo Global Wildlife Conservancy and is supported in part by the Foundation of San Diego Zoo Global.


DIY Succulent Centerpiece

If you haven’t stopped to smell (or observe) the flowers and plants at the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park, your senses are seriously missing out. Inspiration is in full bloom! And today, the brains behind the stunning botanical arrangements at the Safari Park are eager to share this spring-inspired DIY project.

#DIY Succulent Centerpiece

Step 1.) Start by filling the bottom of your pot with soil mixture. For best results, your mixture should be equal parts soil, pearlite, and sand.

#DIY Succulent Centerpiece

#DIY Succulent Centerpiece

Step 2.) Loosely arrange larger succulents in your pot and fill in soil to the same height as your plants.

#DIY Succulent Centerpiece

Step 3.) You can also include pre-cut succulents in your arrangement. In fact, recycling these fleshy plants is a great way to reuse them and fill any gaps in your bouquet. Just be sure to let cut plants rest in a dry place for three to five days before planting. Once they’ve dried for a few days, simply stick a hole into the soil and insert your cut stem.

#DIY Succulent Centerpiece

Step 4.) Have fun with your arrangement and try to incorporate different succulent species for a colorful display. If you’re visiting the Safari Park, stop by the Plant Trader where you can pick up drought-tolerant plants from our own collection.

#DIY Succulent Centerpiece

Do you have any horticulture-based requests for our team? Leave them in the comments and we’ll gladly offer tips from the experts.


Jenn Beening is the social media planner for San Diego Zoo Global. Read her previous post, 19 Fascinating Butterfly Facts.


An Insider’s Look at the Horticulture Department: Part 2

Plants for animal exhibits are chosen carefully for their association with the species—and durability!

Plants for animal exhibits are chosen carefully for their association with the species—and durability!

I wanted to work with the horticulture department because I love teaching the public about animals and am inspired by San Diego Zoo Global’s conservation work. In a nutshell (or seedpod), I wanted to discover how the flora and fauna departments work together at the Park.

To fulfill common conservation goals, the Safari Park’s animal care and horticulture departments work together to create beautiful, functional, and accurate exhibits. Plants in and around exhibits are often plants native to those animals’ exotic habitats. This exhibit planting improves the public perception of the Park—on a caravan safari, guests will actually feel as though they are in Africa. Endemic plantings also facilitate natural animal behaviors. For example: endemic plants in an aviary means birds can gather the same nesting materials at the Park that they might in the wild. However, this type of habitat-specific planting can be challenging. P.J. Rhodes, lead horticulturist, has to find African plants that are drought-resistant and cold-hardy to withstand California’s challenging climate—and resilient enough to tolerate the animals living among them.

Providing our weaver birds with the right plant material encourages natural nesting behavior.

Providing our weaver birds with the right plant material encourages natural nesting behavior.

For Gail Thurston, lead horticulturist, the most challenging part of her job revolves around integrating plants with both exotic animals in our collection and native California creatures. Most botanical gardens do not display animals, so plants in these settings have fewer threats. Gail says that “here at the Safari Park [we make a] constant effort to protect our plant material from not only the exhibit animals, but native animals as well: rabbits, squirrels, deer, vermin, and vectors…eat [our plants], dig them up, lay on them, or use them for nesting.” Although the local California mule deer are often the biggest problem, exhibit animals like giraffes can also create big—er, tall—challenges as well. The giraffes love eating the bark on the palm trees planted in the African field enclosures, so the horticulture department had to come up with a creative way to deter them. Many of the palm tree trunks are now enclosed in sturdy mesh to stop those pesky 16-inch giraffe tongues.

However, some of the plants at the Park are meant to be food. Thanks to the Browse Department, the Safari Park supplies the acacia, eucalyptus, bamboo, and fig foliage that feed many species at the Park and Zoo, including giraffes, koalas, giant pandas, and elephants, and many primates. The Safari Park annually produces 20 tons of acacia, 200,750 pieces of eucalyptus, 15 tons of bamboo, and 60 tons of fig foliage! Our sustainable forage supply exemplifies San Diego Zoo Global’s conservation-minded approach.

The next time you visit the Park, stop and see the rhinos—but also take the time to appreciate the gorgeous acacia or ficus tree those rhinos are lying under. Most importantly, talk to a horticulturist on grounds. This dedicated team works hard to make the Park beautiful for your enjoyment and would love nothing better than to spend a few minutes sharing their love of plants with you.

Elise Newman is a Caravan Safari guide at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Read her previous post, An Insider’s Look at the Horticulture Department: Part 1.


An Insider’s Look at the Horticulture Department: Part 1

Look among the animals at the Safari Park, and you'll discover an amazing botanical collection.

Look among the animals at the Safari Park, and you’ll discover an amazing botanical collection.

Not only is the San Diego Zoo Safari Park one of the top wildlife breeding and conservation facilities in the world, it is also a world-renowned botanical garden. The Safari Park’s horticulture department cares for 1,750,000 plant specimens spanning 1,800 acres. For the last few months, I have been working with the Park’s horticulture department on a job-share a few days each week. My goodness, these are hard-working people!

The horticulture department, comprised of 35 people, divides the 1,800-acre Safari Park into sections; one staff member’s section may span several acres. Specific teams are responsible for maintaining the plants and gardens in the center of the Park, around the off-exhibit breeding facilities, near the hospital, and in the large African and Asian field enclosures. Specialized arborists, irrigation, and pest control crews also help keep the Park in tip-top shape.

Working with the horticulture department, I’ve met an extremely friendly staff, full of welcoming, encouraging people who are passionate about plants. The horticulture team members came from very disparate backgrounds to work at the Park. Some have degrees in horticulture, irrigation, or arboriculture. Some had long, successful careers in completely unrelated fields and are horticulturists as a second career. For example, some of the horticulturists used to be zookeepers, work for construction crews, or work as gardeners in the private sector.

Saharan cypress

Among the Park’s plant collection is a North African cypress, one of the most drought-tolerant and frost-resistant conifers known—and a critically endangered species, having been exploited for centuries for its wood.

Let me set the record straight. If you’re picturing an arthritic 90-year old planting petunias in his front garden on a lazy Sunday, then you’re not seeing the Safari Park’s horticulture team. These horticulturists are fit, efficient women and men who face risks every day. In addition to working outdoors in 100+ degree Fahrenheit temperatures, they operate heavy machinery including chain saws, wood chippers, and dump trucks. They avoid rattlesnakes, thorns, bugs, sunburn, dehydration, and rainstorms. And they do it all with (amazingly) positive attitudes. Gail Thurston, the lead horticulturist of the Field section, says that “my favorite part is the daily creativity and the ability to have every day be different and fulfilling…every day we work in a beautiful garden.”

In addition to beautifying the Park, the horticulturists’ work augments San Diego Zoo Global’s mission. Plants are important in their own right, therefore San Diego Zoo Global is working to conserve not only endangered animals, but endangered plants as well. In fact, the Safari Park houses many endangered plants, including Catalina mahogany Cercocarpus traskiae native to Santa Catalina Island, Wollemi pine Wollemia nobilis indigenous to Australia, and Saharan cypress Cupressus dupreziana from Algeria. These plants are endangered in their native habitats, so growing them in botanical collections like the Safari Park helps increase their population numbers. Additionally, the horticulturists cooperate with San Diego Zoo Global’s Seed Bank and Institute for Conservation researchers to preserve endangered San Diego County habitat.

The horticulture team members are as dedicated to the Safari Park’s botanical conservation mission outside of work as they are in uniform. When they are not working at the Park, many of the horticulturists can be found at botanical conferences, re-planting coastal sage scrub in fire-damaged habitats in Southern California, or studying trees in the Amazon.

Stay tuned for the second part of this blog: how the Park’s flora helps the Park’s fauna!

Elise Newman is a Caravan Safari guide at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Read her previous post, Wild Romance.


Gorse Crisis: Making Way for Native Plants

Amanda and Amy remove some invasive gorse.

It goes without saying that wild bird populations are dependent upon good quality, natural habitat for foraging, nesting, and escaping from predators, to survive. The native forest birds of Hawaii face a multitude of threats, and the loss and degradation of habitat is one of the primary reasons for the decline of these unique species. Invasive plants and animals are taking over and destroying their forest home. For example, introduced pigs and deer browse on the plants and churn up the forest floor in search of food, killing native seedlings and providing an opening for faster-growing, invasive plants to gain a foothold in native environments. In many cases, in order to restore native plants, we must first remove the nonnative ones.

Gorse in bloom. Note the nasty thorns!

Gorse is one such invasive plant common in parts of Maui as well as the Big Island. The dense, prickly shrub, introduced to Hawaii in the 1800s, originated in western Europe, where it is still valued as a living fence for livestock. In addition to its aggressive tendencies, gorse grows much more quickly than most of Hawaii’s indigenous species and easily out-competes them for space and sunlight. Today, gorse is considered to be a serious weed, and all attempts to eradicate it have failed. The International Union for Conservation of Nature recognizes gorse as one of the top 100 worst invasive species in the world; so far, the best-recognized method for combating gorse is to plant faster-growing plants that are able to shade out sun-loving gorse.

At the Maui Bird Conservation Center, we have our own gorse crisis. Fellow intern Amy Kuhar and I are tackling our gorse invasion head on. Because the gorse defends itself with innumerable thorny spikes, we have started by taking down different sections of the weed in phases. We start by trimming back branches with loppers, then we use hand saws to sever each plant at the base. When possible, we also dig out the roots. The process is very time consuming, and we have worked many hours on the project. “Painstaking” would be the best adjective to describe the effort, because the gorse fights back, and after an afternoon of gorse eradication, we are left with innumerable itchy, tiny thorns embedded under the skin of our hands, arms, and legs!

A mamane sapling planted at the MBCC.

In addition to rescuing resident koa, ‘ohia, and mamane trees choked by gorse around the facility, we also began the process of replacing the invasive vegetation with native plants such as `a`ali`i and more mamane. In one area alone, we have planted more than two dozen new trees and are excited to see them growing over the newly cleared area! But the battle does not end there. One of gorse’s greatest weapons is its massive production of seeds, which can lay dormant in the soil for many years. As the older gorse is cleared, the seeds rapidly germinate, and within a few weeks there is a bed of new gorse seedlings. To stay on top of these, we must spray with herbicide to prevent another new invasion, allowing the native plants to flourish.

Hopefully, future interns will continue to clear gorse to make way for more native planting, all of which will someday create habitat for our wild, feathered friends such as the `amakihi. We hope the native plants will also eventually provide a source of perching, nesting material, berries, and seedpods for the birds in our care.

Amanda Maugans is an intern at the San Diego Zoo Maui Bird Conservation Center.


The Desert: Blooms and Hail

Grape-soda lupine

San Diego County is the most botanically diverse area in the U.S., with nearly 2,000 species, many of which are endemic (unique to a defined geographic area, so many are found only in San Diego County). There are not many places where you can experience the ocean, the snow, and the desert within a couple hours. The desert transition habitat is found down the east side of the Peninsular Ranges, and this is the site of our recent seed collection trip. The weather forecast looked ominous, but we were optimistic. To get to our site, we had to drive up and over the Cuyamaca Mountains and out into the lower elevations beyond.

Apricot mallow

When we finally reached our site, we saw a mix of cacti, shrubs, and huge granite boulders. It was freezing cold and very windy. At certain points the wind became so strong it was difficult to open the truck doors to get out and identify plants. Despite the rough conditions, it was a beautiful place to explore. We saw desert apricot Prunus fremontii, golden gooseberry Ribes quercetorum, and grape-soda lupine Lupinus excubitus in bloom.

As the day wore on, the weather only got worse. When we tried to collect a sample of apricot mallow Sphaeralcea ambigua, the rain turned to hail, and we decided to admit defeat for the day.

McCain Valley overlook

On the drive back up and over the Cuyamacas, the hail turned to snow! It was so much fun to watch everything turn white throughout the course of our drive. We followed a snowplow most of the way down the mountain; I never would have imagined experiencing something like that in Southern California! As we dropped in elevation, the snow slowly changed back into rain and everything turned green again. It was odd to realize that we had only been a half an hour away from the ocean.

San Diego is truly a remarkable place, and I couldn’t ask for a better area to study plant diversity.

Lauren Anderson is an intern at the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research through the Bureau of Land Management’s Seeds of Success Program. Read her previous post, Wake Up, Seeds! Germination Testing.