Conserving Threatened Palms

The threatened palm Brahea aculeata

The descriptor “tropical forests” usually conjures images of lush green forests with high canopies brimming with life—or at least for me it did. But as I look across the lands of the Sierra de Alamos-Rio Cuchujaqui Protected Area in Sonora, Mexico, I see large, columnar cacti peeking out from the fading green and pale brown of surrounding trees. Yet this, too, is considered a tropical forest—a tropical deciduous forest. Here the lush green foliage bursts forth with the summer monsoons and extends through mid-fall and hurricane season. As winter approaches, the trees drop their leaves, though not because of the cold temperatures, as with temperate forests, but due to the dry climate. By March, there is nary a leaf in sight, and the hillsides have taken on a red-brown-gray referred to locally as mojino. Many of the adaptations we associate with desert plants developed here to survive the harsh, dry season. The green that remains is found along the arroyos and in the stems of the tall cacti. That’s not to say there is no color, for during the dry season there is always something flowering. Blooming amapas Tabebuia impetiginosa add a splash of color to the fading greens and brown as we drive to the protected area.

A hawk perches on an amapas tree. Click on the photo to enlarge.

But the image of a forest brimming with life still fits, even if the first view doesn’t confirm it. Thousands of plant species live here, many are found only here. The Sierra’s tropical deciduous forest supports a rich array of fauna as well. With over 450 resident and migratory bird species, and many recognized as threatened or endangered, Birdlife International has designated the Sierra de Alamos as an Important Bird Area. The area also provides essential habitat and corridors for charismatic megafauna such as jaguars, ocelots, and margays. Many tropical amphibian and reptile species reach their northern range limits here, while desert species, such as the Gila monster, also extend into the region.

The protected area where we are working represents the northernmost stretch of tropical deciduous forest in the Americas, and possibly the most intact. Once extending from here in southern Sonora to Panama, and usually with only a width of around 30 miles, only 15 percent of the tropical deciduous forest in North America remains. And only about 1 percent of that is in protected areas. Though rather unusual for a protected area, the majority of lands in the Sierra de Alamos-Rio Cuchujaqui Protected Area remain in private hands; the reserve limits activities such as mining and land clearing, but cattle ranching still dominates the land, and overgrazing prevents a large risk. As part of the Applied Plant Ecology Division of the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, I’m here as part of a research team focusing on a threatened palm, Brahea aculeata, and how various management practices (i.e. cattle grazing) affect the palm population.

Nature and Culture International (NCI), a nongovernmental organization partnering with San Diego Zoo Global in several locations in Latin America, represents an important resource for our project. They own land, have staff who serve as excellent field assistants and guides, and have strong relationships with ranchers in the area. Seeing the importance in conserving this little-known corner of the tropics, NCI has taken on the task of adding more stringent protection by purchasing the ranches along the main watershed. With just a few years’ break from cattle, it is easy to distinguish NCI lands from neighboring ranches; willows and other riparian vegetation really do flourish without the constant munch of cows. Hoping to widen its impact beyond the landholdings, NCI is working with us on some land-management issues in the area. We hope to base management practices in science and share them with the neighboring ranches. Building on this partnership, we hope to conserve this special part of Mexico, the tropical deciduous forest and the wonderful wildlife it contains.

Christa Horn is a senior research technician in the Applied Plant Ecology Division of the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research. Read her previous post, Observing Nature as a Child.

For more information on NCI and San Diego Zoo Global’s partnership…

For more information on the tropical deciduous forest of Sonora and NCI…


Golden Eagle Helicopter Survey

During the second week of March, I participated in a helicopter survey of golden eagles and their nests along the rugged, remote, and spectacular ridges and canyons of the Sierra de Juárez Mountains in Baja California, Mexico. The survey was conducted under the auspices of Sempra Energy, which is obligated by the state government to provide a percentage of their power production through clean and renewable sources.

Sempra has obtained a lease from an ejido (cooperative farming) community to install an extensive wind farm across the northern Baja peninsula. Wind farms have great potential to reduce much of our dependency on fossil fuels by generating large amounts of electrical energy from a renewable resource with no direct byproduct pollutants. However, wind farms can also pose a considerable hazard to bird and bat populations. Wind turbines that are improperly located without regard to wildlife habitat use and movement patterns can cause high levels of injury and mortality to flying animals.

Sempra has contracted San Diego Zoo Conservation Research to conduct a full-scale survey and analysis of golden eagle population characteristics, habitat use, and movement behaviors throughout the planned wind farm site. The eagle study is part of a comprehensive assessment to avoid and mitigate the environmental impacts of the turbines. The golden eagle has high ecological and conservation management importance as a keystone species and is of particular cultural significance to Mexico as a national icon. Sempra views proper safeguarding of the golden eagle populations in the wind farm area as an essential aspect of good environmental stewardship and vital to maintaining favorable binational relations with Mexican stakeholders.

Sierra Juarez Mountains

Sierra Juárez Mountains

Golden eagles can range hundreds of miles while foraging for their food resources, such as rodents and rabbits. Eagles often use mountain ridges to ride the thermal updrafts that sweep up from the valleys and deserts below so as to gain elevation without expending much flying effort. Unfortunately, their propensity to seek out strong winds can bring the birds into proximity with wind farms. Locating golden eagles that maintain large home ranges can be very challenging. Fortunately, golden eagles can be found during the mating season in late winter/early spring as they maintain territories and incubate eggs in clifftop eyries. The remoteness and ruggedness of their habitats often precludes field-based observations of eagles from being conducted by foot or motor vehicle, so many surveys are instead done via helicopter.

An experienced team of ecologists and wildlife researchers from San Diego Zoo Conservation Research led the search for golden eagles along the mountain ridges of the proposed Sempra wind farm site in northern Baja. Team leader Dr. Lisa Nordstrom organized the survey with the assistance of Dr. Mike Wallace, Dianne Van Dien, and yours truly. Staff from the Wildlife Research Institute provided integral planning and field support, particularly executive director Dave Bittner, who has decades of experience studying raptors in the wild.

Golden eagle nest

Golden eagle nest

The survey ran for three days and consisted of broad sweeps of golden eagle habitat from a chartered helicopter. Groups of three researchers took turns taking helicopter-based observations in two-hour blocks, scanning the Baja peaks, canyons, mesas, and buttes for signs of eagles and their nests. To facilitate easier viewing, the helicopter doors were detached, which made for an extremely bracing ride as the frigid winter mountain air roared into the cockpit! After soaring across the frosted boughs of the conifer and pines of the Baja ranch that served as our field base, our pilot would fly us over the edge of the mountain escarpment. Suddenly, the earth would drop away and the aircraft would be suspended 5,000 feet over the majestic canyon system of the Sierra de Juárez Mountains. Our expert pilot hovered his craft less than 30 feet from the rock face as we buzzed up and down the sheer canyon walls at high speed, searching for eagles and their nests.

The northern section of the survey covered habitat that was mostly barren, jagged rock, but we were able to locate four nests and spot several golden eagles in the less-desolate central and southern sections. We also observed red-tailed hawks and turkey vultures, as well as three distinct herds of bighorn sheep that were grazing among the giant barrel cacti on the steep slopes.

The GPS coordinates of the nests were recorded so that researchers can travel into the area to catch wild eagles for the next phase of the project. At least six free-ranging golden eagles will be fitted with miniaturized GPS transmitters so that their movement patterns can be monitored remotely over the next two years. The data from the eagles will be analyzed to characterize their movement patterns and habitat use across seasons. Data on the movements of the California condors that are being reintroduced to the Baja peninsular by the San Diego Zoo will also be included.

This information will be used to inform planning strategies for the optimal location and operation of the wind farm and provide a predictive management tool so that the risk of harm to the birds and their habitats is minimized.

James Sheppard is a Postdoctoral Fellow for San Diego Zoo Conservation Research.

Here’s more information about James’ project

Read James’ previous blog, Are Condors Blown By the Wind?