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A Geneticist by Any Other Name is Just as Sweet

Our presenter, Ms. Heidi Davis, is a research coordinator at the San Diego Zoo Beckman Center. Ms. Davis has currently been working at the Beckman Center for over 14 years, and works in the genetics cytogenetic department looking at DNA for different research projects.

Our presenter, Ms. Heidi Davis, is a research coordinator at the San Diego Zoo Beckman Center. Ms. Davis has currently been working at the Beckman Center for over 14 years, and works in the genetics cytogenetic department looking at DNA for different research projects.

This is an example of when a specific DNA sequence is copied. After a DNA sample is extracted in the DNA extraction room, it is then sent to the PCR lab for DNA and RNA replication to amplify the selected region. The selected region is amplified when a geneticist is studying a specific part of a DNA of an animal. By isolating the specific region of the DNA or RNA sample and forcing it to replicate itself billions of times over, a geneticist can study pathogens or diseases that affect a specific part of the DNA or RNA.

This is an example of when a specific DNA sequence is copied. After a DNA sample is extracted in the DNA extraction room, it is then sent to the PCR lab for DNA and RNA replication to amplify the selected region. The selected region is amplified when a geneticist is studying a specific part of a DNA of an animal. By isolating the specific region of the DNA or RNA sample and forcing it to replicate itself billions of times over, a geneticist can study pathogens or diseases that affect a specific part of the DNA or RNA.

These centrifuges are used for the separation of liquids that have different weights. In the genetics lab the centrifuges are used to separate blood cells from plasma cells in order to extract DNA. These two centrifuges are actually some of the oldest of their kind that are still in use today.

These centrifuges are used for the separation of liquids that have different weights. In the genetics lab the centrifuges are used to separate blood cells from plasma cells in order to extract DNA. These two centrifuges are actually some of the oldest of their kind that are still in use today.

This is the DNA fridge in the genetics lab. Different types of animal DNA are stored in this fridge because the cold temperature keeps the DNA from breaking apart. Some of the samples kept in this fridge are over 50 years old! Some of the samples of animal DNA kept in the fridge include reptiles, birds, mammals, and even some endangered species. These samples can be taken and used for things like sexing animals, checking hormone rates, and even determining if an animal has a genetic disease.

This is the DNA fridge in the genetics lab. Different types of animal DNA are stored in this fridge because the cold temperature keeps the DNA from breaking apart. Some of the samples kept in this fridge are over 50 years old! Some of the samples of animal DNA kept in the fridge include reptiles, birds, mammals, and even some endangered species. These samples can be taken and used for things like sexing animals, checking hormone rates, and even determining if an animal has a genetic disease.

This is a genetic sequence analyzer, a very valuable tool for genetic studies with micro sequencing and microsatellite analysis capabilities. Micro sequencing is when a very small amount of protein is taken from an animal and screened through this machine to make a DNA library of known and unknown samples, as well as for cloning the DNA. The genetic sequence analyzer is used to automate the DNA sequencing process that would take a single geneticist hours to do by hand. Additionally, similar machines are even used by police to match different DNA samples found at crime scenes.

This is a genetic sequence analyzer, a very valuable tool for genetic studies with micro sequencing and microsatellite analysis capabilities. Micro sequencing is when a very small amount of protein is taken from an animal and screened through this machine to make a DNA library of known and unknown samples, as well as for cloning the DNA. The genetic sequence analyzer is used to automate the DNA sequencing process that would take a single geneticist hours to do by hand. Additionally, similar machines are even used by police to match different DNA samples found at crime scenes.

These are different samples taken from animals that are waiting for DNA extraction, these samples are taken in a way that is not harmful to the animals. The samples shown are feathers, skin cells, fecal samples, urine, hair, eggshell, and blood. These samples will have DNA extracted and later sent to PCR lab for further study. From these samples geneticist can determine things such as the sex of the animal, whether the animal has a genetic disease, or even if the sample animal is genetically fit for breeding.

These are different samples taken from animals that are waiting for DNA extraction, these samples are taken in a way that is not harmful to the animals. The samples shown are feathers, skin cells, fecal samples, urine, hair, eggshell, and blood. These samples will have DNA extracted and later sent to PCR lab for further study. From these samples geneticist can determine things such as the sex of the animal, whether the animal has a genetic disease, or even if the sample animal is genetically fit for breeding.

Devin, Photo Team
Week Six, Winter 2015

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Growling Elephants

Zoo InternQuest is a seven-week career exploration program for San Diego County high school juniors and seniors. Students have the unique opportunity to meet professionals working for the San Diego Zoo, Safari Park, and Institute for Conservation Research, learn about their jobs, and then blog about their experience online. Follow their adventures here!

What do dogs and elephants have in common? They both growl! Elephants don’t always make the characteristic trumpeting calls, and actually often make rumbling sounds to communicate within their herd. The difficulty is telling the grumbly sounds apart; how do you tell what an elephant needs if you can’t distinguish its calls? Interns learned this answer from a visit to the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, where we met with Matt Anderson and Jennifer Tobey of the Behavioral Ecology department!

Matt Anderson, Director of Behavioral Ecology, works with animal hormones to try and figure out how they influence an animal’s behavior, with the end result of boosting breeding success by stimulating those actions. He does a lot of research on animal sensory behavior, particularly sound and smell, to find out how those are implemented into animal life and behavior. Currently, he is working on a project with the Safari Park’s African elephant herd, researching their sensory capabilities to try and learn more about their capabilities of hearing and smell. Hopefully, this knowledge can eventually be applied to wild African elephants to see if they can be encouraged to wander into safer land by manipulating their senses of hearing and smell.

Matt Anderson, Director of Behavioral Ecology, works with animal hormones to try and figure out how they influence an animal’s behavior, with the end result of boosting breeding success by stimulating those actions. He does a lot of research on animal sensory behavior, particularly sound and smell, to find out how those are implemented into animal life and behavior. Currently, he is working on a project with the Safari Park’s African elephant herd, researching their sensory capabilities to try and learn more about their capabilities of hearing and smell. Hopefully, this knowledge can eventually be applied to wild African elephants to see if they can be encouraged to wander into safer land by manipulating their senses of hearing and smell.

Here, Mr. Anderson gestures to a chart depicting the vocalizations of African elephants, who have a much wider range of sounds than originally thought. Along with the characteristic trumpet-like alarm call, elephants use growls, purrs, and rumbles to communicate with others close by within their herd. To the human ear, most of the deeper vocalizations are indistinguishable from one another, and as such are also too low for most predators to tell the difference. By speeding up recordings of lower elephant growls, the Behavioral Ecology department can push the sounds higher up on the frequency range and are able to hear the complete calls. How cool- elephants have a secret language!

Here, Mr. Anderson gestures to a chart depicting the vocalizations of African elephants, who have a much wider range of sounds than originally thought. Along with the characteristic trumpet-like alarm call, elephants use growls, purrs, and rumbles to communicate with others close by within their herd. To the human ear, most of the deeper vocalizations are indistinguishable from one another, and as such are also too low for most predators to tell the difference. By speeding up recordings of lower elephant growls, the Behavioral Ecology department can push the sounds higher up on the frequency range and are able to hear the complete calls. How cool- elephants have a secret language!

Jennifer Tobey, a Researcher in the Behavioral Ecology department, also works on determining animals’ use of sensory capabilities in order to increase breeding success. She focuses particularly on the koalas, and does a lot of work with the Zoo’s koala collection observing their vocalizations and sense of smell. Wild koalas in Australia face the same issues with human development as the African elephants. As koalas’ habitat becomes more fragmented and it becomes harder for them to find one another, it is important to learn more about their sensory behavior to increase breeding in the wild.

Jennifer Tobey, a Researcher in the Behavioral Ecology department, also works on determining animals’ use of sensory capabilities in order to increase breeding success. She focuses particularly on the koalas, and does a lot of work with the Zoo’s koala collection observing their vocalizations and sense of smell. Wild koalas in Australia face the same issues with human development as the African elephants. As koalas’ habitat becomes more fragmented and it becomes harder for them to find one another, it is important to learn more about their sensory behavior to increase breeding in the wild.

Ms. Tobey showed us a chart displaying the amount of nighttime vocalizations, or bellows, made by the Zoo’s koalas on average, comparing the amount made in the springtime to those made in the fall. Overall, the amount of calls made in spring far exceeded those made in the fall, which is understandable because spring is koala breeding time! One curious fact noted is that the calls made in the winter were longer in duration although less in number, and the calls made in the spring were more frequent but shorter in length. Interesting!

Ms. Tobey showed us a chart displaying the amount of nighttime vocalizations, or bellows, made by the Zoo’s koalas on average, comparing the amount made in the springtime to those made in the fall. Overall, the amount of calls made in spring far exceeded those made in the fall, which is understandable because spring is koala breeding time! One curious fact noted is that the calls made in the winter were longer in duration although less in number, and the calls made in the spring were more frequent but shorter in length. Interesting!

The green box Ms. Tobey holds is a recording device used in Australia by Zoo scientists to monitor the bellows made by wild koalas versus the ones made by koalas in managed care. Koalas are far more dispersed in the wild and it is important that any observations made by a researcher are well documented for further examination back in the lab. The tiny brown microphones on either side can pick up sounds in all directions, and are powerful enough to catch any noises made by nearby animals.

The green box Ms. Tobey holds is a recording device used in Australia by Zoo scientists to monitor the bellows made by wild koalas versus the ones made by koalas in managed care. Koalas are far more dispersed in the wild and it is important that any observations made by a researcher are well documented for further examination back in the lab. The tiny brown microphones on either side can pick up sounds in all directions, and are powerful enough to catch any noises made by nearby animals.

Fellow intern Lucas tries on the newer recording equipment used by researchers in the field! This equipment differs from the previous recorders because it is operated by a researcher and is able to focus on a certain individual’s sound. In contrast, the older equipment is left in an environment to record every sound, and as such often obliterates the intended noise. As Lucas can attest, the microphone is so powerful that it can pick up a particular individual’s sounds in the midst of a crowded atmosphere. This is useful for work in Australia and the wild, where it is impossible to isolate an individual to hear their sounds and a researcher must have equipment able to pick certain noises out of a chaotic environment.

Fellow intern Lucas tries on the newer recording equipment used by researchers in the field! This equipment differs from the previous recorders because it is operated by a researcher and is able to focus on a certain individual’s sound. In contrast, the older equipment is left in an environment to record every sound, and as such often obliterates the intended noise. As Lucas can attest, the microphone is so powerful that it can pick up a particular individual’s sounds in the midst of a crowded atmosphere. This is useful for work in Australia and the wild, where it is impossible to isolate an individual to hear their sounds and a researcher must have equipment able to pick certain noises out of a chaotic environment.

Intern Claudia adjusts the specialized headphones used with the recording equipment as Ms. Tobey explains its function. Currently, this equipment is being used on St. Bee’s Island, a small island off the coast of Australia, a completely uninhabited spot where koalas and animals have a natural sanctuary. Scientists from San Diego Zoo Global research koalas on this island because by figuring out their natural behaviors in an environment untouched by man, we can decide how to protect them on areas that are urbanized and apply that to protecting them in Australia.

Intern Claudia adjusts the specialized headphones used with the recording equipment as Ms. Tobey explains its function. Currently, this equipment is being used on St. Bee’s Island, a small island off the coast of Australia, a completely uninhabited spot where koalas and animals have a natural sanctuary. Scientists from San Diego Zoo Global research koalas on this island because by figuring out their natural behaviors in an environment untouched by man, we can decide how to protect them on areas that are urbanized and apply that to protecting them in Australia.

Katie Tibbitts, Photo Team
Week Six, Winter Session 2015

 

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Journey of a Lifetime

Zoo InternQuest is a seven-week career exploration program for San Diego County high school juniors and seniors. Students have the unique opportunity to meet professionals working for the San Diego Zoo, Safari Park, and Institute for Conservation Research, learn about jobs, and the blog about their experience online. Follow their adventures here on the Zoo’s website!

Our InternQuest session is coming to a close, but week six gave us a great opportunity to celebrate our experience together. We got the exciting opportunity to venture into the African savanna and Asian plains without ever leaving our caravan truck. Mammal keepers Torrey Pillsbury and Roger Petersen were our guides through the sweeping field exhibits of the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Our experience with these two fantastic keepers was a journey to remember and a fitting finale for our amazing last month and a half.

For more than two decades, Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Petersen have been keeping the animals at the Safari Park magnificent. They’ve cared for animals all over the Park during their careers, but are currently maintaining the first areas they started with: the field exhibits. They’re at work before sunrise, lifting hundred-pound hay bales and interacting with unpredictable animals, and they both agree without a doubt that they wouldn’t want to do anything else.

For more than two decades, Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Petersen have been keeping the animals at the Safari Park magnificent. They’ve cared for animals all over the Park during their careers, but are currently maintaining the first areas they started with: the field exhibits. They’re at work before sunrise, lifting hundred-pound hay bales and interacting with unpredictable animals, and they both agree without a doubt that they wouldn’t want to do anything else.

Ms. Pillsbury got her start at the Safari Park in a horseback riding show, later becoming the first female in the Park’s now-bygone elephant show. She was surprised with how many parallels could be drawn between horse care and elephant care. She had only equine experience when she first sat atop a five-ton pachyderm, but found that many of her skills were still applicable. In every field of animal care, two constants endure: feeding, and cleaning up the resulting products. Lifting a bale of hay and raking a pile of poo doesn’t change much between elephants and horses, one just requires a little more effort. The Park’s elephants, pictured above, were rescued from an overcrowded reserve in Swaziland in 2003, and were never performers in the show, but they are big fans of food. They eat around 125 pounds of food daily and—thanks to their impressive water intake—produce a staggering 300 pounds of poop.

Ms. Pillsbury got her start at the Safari Park in a horseback riding show, later becoming the first female in the Park’s now-bygone elephant show. She was surprised with how many parallels could be drawn between horse care and elephant care. She had only equine experience when she first sat atop a five-ton pachyderm, but found that many of her skills were still applicable. In every field of animal care, two constants endure: feeding, and cleaning up the resulting products. Lifting a bale of hay and raking a pile of poo doesn’t change much between elephants and horses, one just requires a little more effort. The Park’s elephants, pictured above, were rescued from an overcrowded reserve in Swaziland in 2003, and were never performers in the show, but they are big fans of food. They eat around 125 pounds of food daily and—thanks to their impressive water intake—produce a staggering 300 pounds of poop.

For anyone who’s ever had to search for a missing member of their group at a theme park or shopping mall, it’s easy to imagine one of the daily challenges field exhibit keepers like Mr. Petersen and Ms. Pillsbury face. Like a lost child running through a crowd, individuals are often swept up by the masses. If one of the Thomson’s gazelle pictured above needed medical attention, how would one identify a specific animal from their herd for treatment?

For anyone who’s ever had to search for a missing member of their group at a theme park or shopping mall, it’s easy to imagine one of the daily challenges field exhibit keepers like Mr. Petersen and Ms. Pillsbury face. Like a lost child running through a crowd, individuals are often swept up by the masses. If one of the Thomson’s gazelle pictured above needed medical attention, how would one identify a specific animal from their herd for treatment?

Many hoofstock at the Park are identifiable by a code of ear notches. This system may sound like something found only on farms, but having a clear method of identifying individuals from afar is indispensable for medical care and genetic viability. Animals need no more than two specifically-positioned notches in each ear to create any combination of numbers,and unlike collars or anklets, they fit every animal without impeding their natural movements and can be unquestionably identified with a good pair of binoculars. The antelope pictured above has notches at the 20, 1 and 4 positions, so it can be identified using the sum of those numbers, 25. Keepers can find which animals need veterinary treatment and keep better records of an animal’s lineage to prevent inbreeding and maintain the population’s genetic diversity, as Ms. Pillsbury shows in the redbook of keepers’ records.

Many hoofstock at the Park are identifiable by a code of ear notches. This system may sound like something found only on farms, but having a clear method of identifying individuals from afar is indispensable for medical care and genetic viability. Animals need no more than two specifically-positioned notches in each ear to create any combination of numbers,and unlike collars or anklets, they fit every animal without impeding their natural movements and can be unquestionably identified with a good pair of binoculars. The antelope pictured above has notches at the 20, 1 and 4 positions, so it can be identified using the sum of those numbers, 25. Keepers can find which animals need veterinary treatment and keep better records of an animal’s lineage to prevent inbreeding and maintain the population’s genetic diversity, as Ms. Pillsbury shows in the redbook of keepers’ records.

The first stop on our “world tour” of the field exhibits was the Southern California version of the Asian savanna, where the Park’s greater one-horned rhinos roam. Unlike a rhinoceros from Africa, who acts as the lawnmower of the plains, Asian rhino species have a greater range of motion in their necks so they can reach into the trees for food. This adaptation explained the two buckets full of hand-sliced apples which sat in the back of our caravan truck, as well as the giant creatures following us with their lips outstretched.

The first stop on our “world tour” of the field exhibits was the Southern California version of the Asian savanna, where the Park’s greater one-horned rhinos roam. Unlike a rhinoceros from Africa, who acts as the lawnmower of the plains, Asian rhino species have a greater range of motion in their necks so they can reach into the trees for food. This adaptation explained the two buckets full of hand-sliced apples which sat in the back of our caravan truck, as well as the giant creatures following us with their lips outstretched.

Everyone was as eager to feed the rhinos as the rhinos were eager to be fed. The above image of Devin and his new one-horned pal shows just how close we got—nearly close enough to touch their keratin-based horn, which is no different in its composition than our own hair and fingernails. Despite this material similarity, many maintain a misguided belief that these horns have medicinal value, leading rhinos to face challenges with poaching in the wild and intensifying the importance of their breeding in managed care facilities.

Everyone was as eager to feed the rhinos as the rhinos were eager to be fed. The above image of Devin and his new one-horned pal shows just how close we got—nearly close enough to touch their keratin-based horn, which is no different in its composition than our own hair and fingernails. Despite this material similarity, many maintain a misguided belief that these horns have medicinal value, leading rhinos to face challenges with poaching in the wild and intensifying the importance of their breeding in managed care facilities.

Just like the keepers who sliced all those apples, we had to do a little food preparation to satisfy the animals awaiting our visit. Celine, in the foreground, is stripping the leaves from an acacia branch. The quiet moment with the group gave her time to reflect. “My experience in Zoo InternQuest furthered my knowledge of conservation projects the Zoo is involved in and gave me a better understanding of the different job opportunities at the Zoo and Safari Park,” she remarked. “It was a very rewarding experience that has introduced me to careers I wasn’t aware of before.”

Just like the keepers who sliced all those apples, we had to do a little food preparation to satisfy the animals awaiting our visit. Celine, in the foreground, is stripping the leaves from an acacia branch. The quiet moment with the group gave her time to reflect. “My experience in Zoo InternQuest furthered my knowledge of conservation projects the Zoo is involved in and gave me a better understanding of the different job opportunities at the Zoo and Safari Park,” she remarked. “It was a very rewarding experience that has introduced me to careers I wasn’t aware of before.”

As our caravan truck rolled down into the African plains, Julianna took the opportunity to grab a selfie with a curious rhino. She said that the hours she spent with the other interns at both the Zoo and Safari Park “solidified my once random thought of working with animals to my dream career!” Hearing from experts every week taught her that anyone working with animals must have “patience and passion.”

As our caravan truck rolled down into the African plains, Julianna took the opportunity to grab a selfie with a curious rhino. She said that the hours she spent with the other interns at both the Zoo and Safari Park “solidified my once random thought of working with animals to my dream career!” Hearing from experts every week taught her that anyone working with animals must have “patience and passion.”

Our adventure with Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Petersen even let us get up-close with the world’s tallest living creatures. Interaction opportunities, like Ms. Pillsbury is demonstrating above, foster the caring attitudes necessary to conserve the dwindling populations of wild giraffes. Conservation Education Research Coordinator David O’Connor, who we met last week, is currently working to save giraffes from human encroachment and habitat fragmentation in Kenya. He’s employing a strategy known as community-based conservation, which connects local populations with efforts to help animals avoid extinction.

Our adventure with Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Petersen even let us get up-close with the world’s tallest living creatures. Interaction opportunities, like Ms. Pillsbury is demonstrating above, foster the caring attitudes necessary to conserve the dwindling populations of wild giraffes. Conservation Education Research Coordinator David O’Connor, who we met last week, is currently working to save giraffes from human encroachment and habitat fragmentation in Kenya. He’s employing a strategy known as community-based conservation, which connects local populations with efforts to help animals avoid extinction.

The giraffes came right up to the truck once they saw the acacia leaves we had worked hard to pluck. Katie, who had contributed her efforts to the harvest, summarized her InternQuest experience cheerfully: “I learned that there is more to the Zoo than meets the eye and that even the littlest of jobs can help the conservation in some way…yay for that!”

The giraffes came right up to the truck once they saw the acacia leaves we had worked hard to pluck. Katie, who had contributed her efforts to the harvest, summarized her InternQuest experience cheerfully: “I learned that there is more to the Zoo than meets the eye and that even the littlest of jobs can help the conservation in some way…yay for that!”

For Emily, weekly meetings with animals and conservation experts expanded her conservation knowledge. She explained, "This experience inspired me to devote my life to saving endangered species."

For Emily, weekly meetings with animals and conservation experts expanded her conservation knowledge. She explained, “This experience inspired me to devote my life to saving endangered species.”

Lucas’ stoic reaction to this curious giraffe is probably because he, too, is used to being the tallest one around. He found the rest of the Zoo, however, to be much more enthusiastic: “Everyone seemed so happy to go to work every day and that passion is what I have found to be the most necessary in a career. The extremely positive morale and focus of conservation in every occupation at the zoo are major incentives to continue my path in zoology.”

Lucas’ stoic reaction to this curious giraffe is probably because he, too, is used to being the tallest one around. He found the rest of the Zoo, however, to be much more enthusiastic: “Everyone seemed so happy to go to work every day and that passion is what I have found to be the most necessary in a career. The extremely positive morale and focus of conservation in every occupation at the zoo are major incentives to continue my path in zoology.”

Claudia’s InternQuest experience caused her to rethink her future. “I headed into this internship knowing exactly what I wanted to do, but being exposed to so many amazing and different career paths has opened my eyes to the other possibilities I can have in the future,” she said. “It makes me even more excited to head off to college, paving my way towards making a childhood dream a reality.”

Claudia’s InternQuest experience caused her to rethink her future. “I headed into this internship knowing exactly what I wanted to do, but being exposed to so many amazing and different career paths has opened my eyes to the other possibilities I can have in the future,” she said. “It makes me even more excited to head off to college, paving my way towards making a childhood dream a reality.”

I started my InternQuest session hoping to be astounded with some new career choice I’d never considered previously. While I was fascinated with all of the work being done for conservation through San Diego Zoo Global, my prior ambitions remained unchanged. I’ve decided to stick with the same plan I’ve had since elementary school: become a zoo educator. Except now, after meeting so many passionate and successful people in the Zoo, I feel truly hopeful that I am on the right path to a fulfilling career that was once only a childhood dream.

I started my InternQuest session hoping to be astounded with some new career choice I’d never considered previously. While I was fascinated with all of the work being done for conservation through San Diego Zoo Global, my prior ambitions remained unchanged. I’ve decided to stick with the same plan I’ve had since elementary school: become a zoo educator. Except now, after meeting so many passionate and successful people in the Zoo, I feel truly hopeful that I am on the right path to a fulfilling career that was once only a childhood dream.

 

Our time as interns has expanded both our knowledge and personal horizons. Many animal lovers start out life under the impression that they should be zookeepers like Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Petersen, but in these six weeks, many of us have found that there are so many other ways out there to be involved with all the different creatures of the world. Hone your skills, explore your options, and pursue your passions: there’s a whole world waiting for you.

Brianna, Photography Team
Week 6, Winter Session 2015

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Adventure of a Lifetime

Zoo InternQuest is a seven-week career exploration program for San Diego County high school juniors and seniors. Students have the unique opportunity to meet professionals working for the San Diego Zoo, Safari Park, and Institute for Conservation Research, learn about their jobs and then blog about their experience online. Follow their adventures here on the Zoo’s Website!

Interns anticipated what had been planned for the day as the culminating experience of our internship approached. We dreamt of rhinos galloping through the savannas and giraffes ambling to eat the leaves from the trees. This week, our intern group had the amazing opportunity to go on an African safari virtually in our own backyard! Our tour guides were Torrey Pillsbury and Roger Petersen, mammal keepers at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, whose job entails feeding and caring for all of the animals in the field exhibits.

When we first arrived, Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Petersen gave us a tour of their office area. One of the daily tasks for a mammal keeper is to keep medical and historical records of the various species at the Park, which is similar to creating a genealogy book of your family. The keepers record how many births an individual has had and the general overall health of the species. After Ms. Pillsbury showed us the various records, Mr. Petersen explained how keepers tag and notch an animal’s ear in order to distinguish who’s who in the 60-acre enclosure relatively quickly.

After the office presentation, our fascinating journey began as we all piled into a safari truck and started the task of preparing acacia browse for the giraffes in the exhibit. Just like humans, animals have favorite foods, and acacia browse is a favorite among giraffes. As we were preparing the browse, we passed the forage warehouse. In the forage warehouse, nutrition staff preps all of the food for the animals at the Park. Additionally, the warehouse has a hay barn that houses Sudan, Bermuda and alfalfa hays.

As we made our way to the gate of the field exhibit, we were all extremely excited. It was a temperate day, and all of the animals were milling around the enclosure. The first animals we encountered were majestic southern white rhinos. They ambled slowly along, basking in the heat of the mid-afternoon sun. It had just rained a few days ago, and the rhinos were enjoying grazing on the lush green grass. As we stayed longer, the rhinos became curious and walked right up to our safari truck! They all gathered around us as if ready to hear a story of importance and stared up at us with eyes that showed their history. Once we had observed the rhinos for quite some time, we ventured further into the exhibit. Along the way, we saw different types of antelope, such as blackbuck, sable antelope and some waterbuck.  The blackbucks were galloping around as if they were regal steeds, and their babies awkwardly walked like toddlers.

As we continued our adventure, we greeted another rhino and had the privilege of feeding her some crisp apples. Ms. Pillsbury showed us the correct way to feed the rhino and then let us feed some apples to her. As I tossed an apple into her mouth, she revealed her giant incisors and she lapped the apple out of my hand almost like a giant puppy. We had to make sure to keep the apples coming because if we stopped feeding apples, the rhino would lose interest and walk away. After she had her fill, we drove on and all of us reveled in the experience we just had.

On our grand circle tour, we spotted some Przewalski horses in the distance, grazing on the hill. They faded away into the landscape as we drove toward the end of our safari adventure. Przewalski horses are endangered in the wild and are part of a Species Survival Plan, which includes a breeding program at the Safari Park. The Safari Park is breeding these horses in the hopes of reintroducing them back into the wild.

As our adventure neared its end, we were all very sad to go, but there was one last send off.  We drove toward the giraffes, and Mr. Petersen stopped the truck. Ms. Pillsbury took some of the acacia leaves out of the bucket and some giraffes joined our little party. They started wrapping their tongues around the leaves and more giraffes ambled over to enjoy the buffet. After Ms. Pillsbury showed us how to feed the giraffes, we grabbed some leaves and started feeding them. At the beginning of the day, we all thought we didn’t have enough browse, but it turned out that we had more than enough to satisfy our visitors’ appetite. It felt as though the giraffes were on cloud nine, just like us! It was an amazing experience and I will never forget how it felt to have a giraffe lick my hand as I fed it lush leaves.

A similar adventure awaits visitors to the Safari Park who choose a caravan safari, and both the Zoo and the Safari Park offer so many ways for people to connect with animals. The Zoo and Safari Park strive to conserve our environment and the animals we share our world with. Ms. Pillsbury explained some ways we can help animals without having to go far from home, such as visiting and supporting the Zoo and the Safari Park in conservation efforts. Additionally, if you want to enjoy an African safari but can’t fly all the way to Africa, you can take a trip to the Safari Park and experience a beautiful caravan safari that will take you to what feels like the plains of Africa and the Asian steppes. If you buy items on Amazon, you can go to Amazon Smile and choose to donate some of the proceeds from your purchase to the Zoo.

As Ms. Pillsbury explained ways to protect animals and the environment, we said goodbye to the giraffes and drove away from our wonderful day. I contemplated the amazing opportunity I had just been fortunate enough to enjoy. Images of zoo jobs floated through my memory, and the animals galloped through my thoughts.

Celine, Real World Team
Week Six, Winter 2015

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The Modern Day Microscope

Zoo InternQuest is a seven-week career exploration for San Diego County high school for juniors and seniors. Students have the unique opportunity to meet professionals working for the San Diego Zoo, Safari Park, or Institute for Conservation Research, learn about their jobs and then blog about their experience online. Follow their adventures here!

Interns had one of the most intellectually difficult presentations when brought into the field of genetics. While Research Coordinator Heidi Davis and Research Technician Anna Mitelberg taught us about the laboratory life of a scientist in the genetics department, Dr. Oliver Ryder explained the scientific significance of the study of genomes and how it can be helpful to the preservation and complete understanding of animal life.

DNA analysis is a relatively new field of science, especially in terms of animals other than humans. At the San Diego Zoo’s Institute for Conservation Research, scientists use the highly available human genetic material in closely related primate research. Human primers are used to isolate ape DNA like when giving the highly sexually active bonobos paternity tests. One of the first instances when genetics was first applied to conservation research was in 1993, when DNA fingerprint technology was used on the critically endangered California condors. The technology was used to identify condor individuals and actually isolated three distinct clans of birds. The California condor was one of the first species to use genetic testing and later genomic sequencing to influence its managed care breeding program.

The black-footed ferret is another species that was saved by the work of genetics. The ferrets were recovered from only seven individuals, which resulted in an incredibly low level of genetic variation. Genetic testing was utilized to determine which ferrets were the least related, so that they could be bred and have the most diverse offspring. While studying the black-footed ferret, scientists compared its genetic material with that of the domesticated ferret genome. They found that most of the differences were found on non-coding sites of DNA. These regions of DNA can be likened to the dark matter of the DNA because it represents a huge percentage of the mass, yet so much about it is unknown. Most of the genomic research is being done on domestic animals like the ferret. Ferrets specifically have had their genomes studied and cloned to research lung pathology and improve drug design for diseases like cystic fibrosis. Pets are also commonly genetically tested because the knowledge gained can be used to preserve qualities that humans find desirable. The controversy stems from the debate as to whether this research should be applied to wildlife.

Geneticists, like Dr. Ryder, would agree that genetic research should be used on wild populations in cases where species are listed as critically endangered. The Florida panther had a very small population and therefore was heavily inbred until scientists implemented genetic rescue. This entailed increasing the population’s genetic diversity by introducing other Florida panthers from Texas. In the case of the northern white rhino, a new individual could not be introduced because there are only five animals of that species left. The genetic diversity among the five rhinos is also very low and reproductive success has yet to be achieved. Mr. Ryder stresses that the only way to save this species now is through hybridization. Mating the northern white rhinos with the closely related species of southern white rhinos is the only way to further the genetic lineage of the almost extinct animal. Hybridization is only used as a last resort because with the black-footed ferret, which is related enough to the domestic ferret to have viable offspring, mating between the two is not encouraged. There is still hope that the endangered ferrets can redevelop a healthy population without the use of hybridization, where as for the northern white rhino it is the only option left.

Genome sequencing is a rather new area of science and is marking a new era in biology. Currently, there is a revolution undergoing in biology because of the wealth of information now available because of gene sequencing. It is an event comparable to the invention of the microscope because now people can understand life in a completely new and even smaller manner. The emphasis on the technology used to determine genetic code is causing a change in the modern day geneticist as well. Most new genetic researchers have computer science backgrounds because of the huge amount of computations and analysis required in the developing field. As genetics continues to expand so too will the human understanding of the intricacies of the diversity of life. All of us on Earth use the same genetic materials but in such different and unknown ways. Hopefully, through the work of researchers, like Dr. Ryder, the unknown dark matter of genetics will be brought to light.

Lucas, Real World Team
Week Six, Winter Session, 2015

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Out of Africa and in San Diego

Zoo InternQuest is a seven-week career exploration program for San Diego County high school juniors and seniors. Students have the unique opportunity to meet professionals working for the San Diego Zoo, Safari Park, and Institute for Conservation Research, learn about their jobs, and then blog about their experience online. Follow their adventures here!

Large open enclosures, a peaceful and calm environment, and perfect weather are the three things that come to mind describing the San Diego Zoo’s Safari Park in the spring time. The day we met mammal keepers Torrey Pillsbury and Roger Peterson at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park was bitter sweet. It was our last opportunity to meet Zoo professionals and I did not want this experience to end. However, that day I had one of the coolest experiences of my life as we went on an African safari in the Asia and Africa exhibits where we got up close encounters with rhinos, giraffes and other hoof stock.

Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Peterson start their day off at six in the morning and end at two in the afternoon. Their daily activities consist of feeding, cleaning, and supplying enrichment to the animals in their area. When it comes to conservation, these keepers play a big role in educating the public and keeping the animals in their area happy and healthy. Additionally, Ms. Pillsbury worked in the nursery, helping to hand rear a baby gorilla and rhino. By bringing up these endangered species, Ms. Pillsbury is able to contribute in preserving species.

On a day-to-day basis, Mr. Peterson and Ms. Pillsbury’s main job is to keep the animals healthy and happy in order to create an ideal environment for breeding. Keepers provide enrichment items like balls, bathing areas, and treats to lower the stress levels of the animals, creating a cheerful habitat. One of the Zoo’s main goals is to increase the populations of endangered species. By creating a natural environment that lowers stress levels, Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Peterson are able to help breeding efforts.

Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Peterson are also very receptive to animal behaviors. After both having worked at the Safari Park for over twenty years, they are well equipped to handle and care for many different types of animals. They can tell when an animal isn’t healthy through its behavior and can also tell if one is pregnant. Their intimate knowledge of the animals combined with over forty years of experience has allowed them to provide optimum care. Everyone can contribute to the Safari Park’s efforts by signing up for Amazon Smile, where part of the proceeds goes to the San Diego Zoo or Safari Park. Ms. Pillsbury told us about how she uses Amazon Smile, and how even a small contribution can make a big difference.

After having an up close encounter with rhinos and giraffes, I gained a new respect for these endangered species. I understand now how much of a difference Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Peterson have made from caring for the animals at the Safari Park. Through their job, Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Peterson are able to spread a message of conservation that will hopefully resonate in people’s minds and hearts, and will prompt them to join the fight to help end extinction.

Julianna, Conservation Team
Week Six, Winter Session 2015

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What’s in a Feather?

Zoo InternQuest is a seven-week career exploration program for San Diego County high school juniors and seniors. Students have the unique opportunity to meet professionals working for the San Diego Zoo, Safari Park, and Institute for Conservation Research, learn about their jobs and then blog about their experience online. Follow their adventures here on the Zoo’s Website!

What could you use a feather for? Maybe to make a quill pen, or an elaborate headdress? Scientists Dr. Oliver Ryder, Heidi Davis and Anna Mitelberg at the Institute for Conservation Research can use a feather to find out everything about the animal it belonged to! Like detectives on a crime scene, spinning a story from a seemingly unrelated item, the three geneticists can take the smallest scrap of animal matter and use it as a gateway to learn about that animal itself. Their end goal is to use info gained from genetic testing to protect endangered species across the globe.

Dr. Ryder, Ms. Davis and Ms. Mitelberg- Director of Genetics, Research Coordinator and Research Technician respectively- work in the Genetics Division at the Institute for Conservation Research. In a nutshell, their job consists of using genetic material obtained from organism matter to help endangered species in the wild. One of the main processes they use is DNA barcoding: they first extract the genetic material from various samples including fecal matter, blood, urine, feathers, and saliva, then scan the DNA through various tests to try and solve particular issues relating to that species. Right now, their focus includes California condors, coral trees, and black-footed ferrets, which are being studied to solve problems such as population loss, disease, and the effects of invasive predators.

Ms. Mitelberg is currently working with California condors trying to design a test for chondrodystrophy, a disease which causes cartilage deformation and commonly affects these endangered birds. By doing various exams on DNA samples collected from different condors, the Genetics team hopes to get a better idea of how chondrodystrophy affects specific birds and see which birds are carriers of the disease. Additionally, knowing which individuals harbor the disease helps scientists track the rate at which it is spreading, as they can better contain and manage chondrodystrophy if it is known which birds carry it in their genes.

Director of Genetics, Dr. Ryder is also focused on saving the California condor; he is collaborating with a movement called “Genome 10K” which hopes to DNA-sequence 10,000 vertebrates across the globe including the condor. He is also actively involved in the impacts of inbreeding for this bird. In the late 1980s, the population of California condors had dropped sharply to only 22 individuals left in the wild, an alarming number caused primarily by lead poisoning and trash ingestion. The Zoo managed to raise the number with a process called “double-clutching”, which used keepers sporting condor puppets to raise one chick while its natural parents raised another; this process was highly successful and now there are over 400 California condors. However, since the original number of condors was so low, scientists are now seeing some health issues rise that were provoked by the low initial number of genetic lines. Dr. Ryder is trying to offset this problem by mapping the DNA of individuals in the current worldwide condor population. Through this attempt, scientists hope to figure out which individuals carry defects caused by the initial low gene pool, and then will go from there.

Ms. Davis is right now working with endangered coral trees, doing DNA barcoding to find out how to stop the damage caused by the invasive Erythrina gall wasp. The parasitic gall wasp invades trees and often kills them, leaving survivors with mangled leaves and shrunken foliage. The Genetics division collects leaf samples from affected trees in places like Hawaii, where the San Diego Zoo is working to restore coral tree populations damaged by the wasp, and is using them in its first plant-based project to date: an attempt to create a DNA-based diagnostic test that can be used to immediately determine specimens impacted by the wasp. The genetic information gathered so far from the leaf samples is already providing insight on specific cases, and the DNA barcoding thus far conducted has already advanced scientific knowledge.

The work done by Ms. Mitelberg, Dr. Ryder, and Ms. Davis under the Genetics Division has resulted in hundreds of organisms being saved by the detailed studies they have conducted on genetic matter. Using their knowledge of DNA barcoding and species’ genetic codes, the Genetics Division has unraveled conservation mysteries not only of the California condor and coral tree, but also of species across the globe. Thanks to the Genetics Division, the Institute for Conservation Research has vastly improved its knowledge of how to fight the hazards impacting endangered species worldwide, thus getting one step closer to its overall goal of ending extinction.

Katie, Conservation Team
Week Six, Winter Session 2015

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How to Train Your Two-Ton Rhino

Zoo InternQuest is a seven-week career exploration program for San Diego County high school juniors and seniors. Students have the unique opportunity to meet professionals working for the San Diego Zoo, Safari Park, and Institute for Conservation Research, learn about jobs, and the blog about their experience online. Follow their adventures here on the Zoo’s website!

Interns had the amazing opportunity to join mammal keepers on a caravan to explore some of the field enclosures at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Torrey Pillsbury and Roger Petersen introduced us to some of the animals they care for, including the giraffes, rhinos, impalas, and other various hoofstock. Most of the animals we met came from Asia and South Africa, two of the most biologically diverse regions of the world. Seeing what keepers do on a day-to-day basis was a life-changing experience, and one that I’m sure none of the interns will ever forget.

Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Petersen begin their day bright and early at 6 am. They work throughout the Safari Park, but start off with a briefing in their office where they check notes from other keepers about the animals, including births, strange behaviors, or injuries. Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Petersen also check redbooks, which are ledgers where all the information on each animal in the Park or Zoo is recorded- such as diet, health care, and daily activities.

Keepers then take a truck up to the forage warehouse, where feed is loaded up for each of the species in Ms. Pillsbury or Mr. Petersen’s assigned area for the day.  They distribute several different types of hay, pellets, fruit, and vegetables to different parts of each enclosure. Together with veterinarians, they check to make sure all the animals look healthy and are eating enough. Managing hoofstock is different than caring for other animals in the Park or Zoo, not only because of the diversity in behavior, diet, and physiology, but also because of how many need to be cared for. Births are common, and veterinary care is a daily occurrence, so part of Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Petersen’s jobs includes helping veterinarians by restraining an animal that needs care, or helping veterinarians pick out a specific animal in a herd. The keeper’s assistance is so vital because so many of the hoofstock look nearly identical, keepers use an ear tag system to identify each animal. These tags, whose location on the ear corresponds to a number that is registered with the Park, can mark up to 600 animals of the same species. Every day is different for Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Petersen as mammal keepers, and their work is rarely boring.

A Southern California native, Ms. Pillsbury began working at the Safari Park as a horse trainer 27 years ago. Visiting the Zoo often, she grew up around animals and loves working with them. After working with the Park’s horse shows, Ms. Pillsbury was offered a position training the elephants in the elephant show. Since then, Ms. Pillsbury has worked with the gorillas, Przewalski’s horses, and now is a keeper specializing in mammals, with species such as impalas, gazelles, rhinos, and wildebeests.

Mr. Petersen became interested in animals and the natural world as a fisherman off the coast of San Diego. Whenever he would go on a fishing trip, he would bring his bird book and binoculars, documenting the species he saw and learning about their behaviors. When a position became available at SeaWorld working in the newly opened penguin encounter, Mr. Petersen jumped at the opportunity. He broadened his expertise with various bird species as well as the other animals on site at SeaWorld. These experiences helped prepare him for working as a mammal keeper here at the Safari Park, where he has been for the past 23 years.

Working with large mammals such as wildebeests or southern white rhinos can be dangerous and unpredictable. It takes a special person to care for these exotic animals, especially when some of them can weigh over two tons. Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Petersen together have over 50 years of experience working with these animals, and use their knowledge to educate others to conserve resources to help the species they work with. If you would like to meet the rhinos, giraffes, and hoofstock the interns met with Ms. Pillsbury and Mr. Petersen, you can book a safari caravan at the Park or go online at sdzsafaripark.org.

Emily, Careers Team
Week 6, Winter 2015

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Gene-y in a Test Tube

Zoo InternQuest is a seven-week career exploration program for San Diego County high school juniors and seniors. Students have the unique ability opportunity to meet professionals working for the San Diego Zoo, Safari Park, and Institute for Conservation Research, learn about their jobs, and then blog about their experience online. Follow their adventures here on the Zoo’s website!

It’s nearly impossible to predict the trajectory of science because it is always changing. It used to be that only the genetics division worked with genes, but now almost every department has some role with genes. The San Diego Zoo Global’s Institute for Conservation Research has been a leader in advancing the world of genetics with the help of Director Dr. Oliver Ryder, and dedicated researchers like Heidi Davis and Anna Mitelberg. By figuring out what is possible, geneticists can determine what they want animal life to look like on Earth, being the puppeteers behind the survival of a species.

Molecular genetics can perform a multitude of tests including paternity, genetic identity, or genetic sexing with a sample of DNA from an animal. Noninvasive samples are preferred such as tissue received from a veterinary exam or necropsy, a feather, hair, saliva, or feces. The DNA is then extracted and amplified to make more copies which are either used or saved in various fridges throughout the lab. The fridges contain collectively 4,000 samples genetic material. These samples are stored for future use or to send out to other zoos and organizations for their own tests. Heidi Davis, Research Coordinator, is constantly working on different projects since she began 14 years ago at the Institute. Currently, she is working on a paternity analysis of the bonobos and chimpanzees throughout the nation that were the first generation of zoo animals brought from the wild to see if they are related. Ms. Davis had an interesting entrance into the field of molecular genetics. She entered college at UCSD as a history major, but noticed that she had an affinity for science and math. After taking a general biology class with a great professor she changed her major to Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, which allowed her to combine her love of conservation with biology.

One of the most well-known conservation success stories involving a species on the brink of extinction is that of the California condors. With only 22 condors left, and on the brink of extinction, a breeding system was implemented in the managed care of the San Diego Zoo which revived the population. Anna Mitelberg, Research Lab Technician, monitors the sex of California condor eggs, something that has been done since the 1980s. The species is sexually monomorphic, meaning both genders are identical in appearance, so DNA is extracted from the membrane of the eggshell to genetically sex the birds. The amplification of a specific gene, CHD, presents the sexual determination of the developing embryo and allows the geneticists to keep track of the California condor population. She is also developing a screening process to test for chondrodystrophy, a genetic disease commonly found in California condors.

When Dr. Oliver Ryder graduated from UC Riverside with a B.S. in biology and had received a Ph.D. in biology from UC San Diego about 40 years ago, he sought to do conservation genetics with endangered species. Since then, Dr. Ryder has had many years of experience and has contributed to some of the greatest conservation efforts for endangered species. This includes the California condor rehabilitation, black-footed ferret gene rescue, the Frozen Zoo, and Genome 10K to just name a few. Today, with the sharp decline of Northern white rhinos, geneticists are working rapidly to find a method for saving this small remaining population of five. A project underway is seeking to sequence the genomes of wild Southern white rhinos for differences between the two in hopes of making a hybrid, with the Southerns receiving and carrying the embryo. Dr. Ryder emphasized how imperative it is for the new generations that would be produced to grow up with some adults of their own species, and not be the sole survivors, because of the behavioral and ecological effects. He advises anyone interested in this field to attain a Ph.D., be good at bioinformatics, and have tenacity for problem solving. Overall if you follow your passion and learn as much as possible, in that pursuit you will become an expert.

The progress of the genetics department is reliant on people who truly understand these matters to communicate with one another and foster authentic discussions for the future conservation of species. Experience is a key factor for getting a job, especially at such a prominent organization like the San Diego Zoo. If you have the opportunity, talk to people who work in the field to gain as much information as possible. At the core of this department is pure excitement towards rescuing species from extinction. As the genetics department approaches this brave new world of science, a lot of headway is being made but there are still things to be discovered and species to save.

Claudia, Career Team
Week Six, Winter Session

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Conservation through Education

Zoo InternQuest is a seven-week career exploration program for San Diego County high school juniors and seniors. Students have the unique opportunity to meet professionals working for the San Diego Zoo, Safari Park, and Institute for Conservation Research, learn about jobs, and the blog about their experience online. Follow their adventures here on the Zoo’s website!

Interns had the amazing opportunity to meet with David O’Connor, a wildlife biologist and research coordinator at the Institute of Conservation Research. Mr. O’Connor focuses on community-based ecology and conservation. This means that he helps establish wildlife refuges and projects with local communities. By educating those who share a region with endangered species, Mr. O’Connor hopes that it will inspire them to help in conservation efforts. This contributes to the fight against extinction because the people who have the most interactions with a species often are the biggest asset in saving the species.

One of the main issues associated with endangered species conservation is the lack of information on the behaviors or attitudes of locals who share the same habitat as the animals. By surveying the indigenous people who directly affect the organisms being studied, Mr. O’Connor can get a better understanding of the public’s perception of the animal and the environmental conflicts afflicting the area. Populations in Laos and Kenya have been surveyed through randomized response technique and the results have been used as part of conservation efforts. Conservation ecologists can gage how important an animal is to a community, and gain insight on the best ways to not only save a struggling species, but to help create jobs or infrastructure for locals by asking for their aid in projects.

The common theme throughout Mr. O’Connor’s projects has been studying the human dimension of conservation. This means that he and others in his field focus on the relationship between an endangered species and the humans in their habitat. If local communities are left in the dark about efforts to preserve endangered species, they may see it as a threat to their lifestyle unless they are properly educated. For instance, if researchers were to come into an area that has stayed relatively the same for generations and proposed a huge change, the results could be disastrous. Through community driven ecology and education, locals are directly involved in the project in hopes that it will be self-sufficient, without the assistance of a parent organization staying on-site to oversee it.

Mr. O’Connor has specifically worked in the preservation of the sun bear, Asiatic black bear and the giraffe. Bear oil is a substance found in the bile ducts of bears found particularly in Southeast Asia. Poachers will kill bears in forests and take their gallbladder specifically extracting the bile, leaving their corpse to decay in the forest. Cubs will be taken and often sold in the pet trade, or to bear bile farms, where they are locked in cages and have their liver exposed so that their bile can harvested. This barbaric practice dates back centuries— to East Asian countries whose traditional doctors hail bear oil as a magical cure— all used to treat indigestion, or to reduce inflammation. Although there are many herbal and synthetic alternatives to using bear bile, traditional doctors insist on using the real thing. Mr. O’Connor recently travelled to Laos where he surveyed locals about their involvement in the bear oil trade. He and his team found that 10-20% of Laotians use bear oil, and 20% believe that is it effective. They also found that 75% knew that the bear bile trade is harmful for bears. With these numbers in mind, Mr. O’Connor and his team can set up projects to help the local community help the sun bears.

Recently, conservation has shifted from top-down westernization efforts to community-based projects. Although this may take longer, establishing trust and support from a local community may make all the difference in gauging a project’s success. Furthermore, San Diego Zoo Global believes education is a crucial part of conservation, and through the exchange of knowledge between locals and animal experts, we can make enormous strides in preserving the natural world for generations to come.

Emily, Real World
Week Three, Winter 2015