Animals site sub feature

Animals site sub feature

3

From Milk to Solids for Young Giraffe

Leroy enjoys some attention from Mom.

Leroy enjoys some attention from Mom.

Animal babies and human babies often have similar growing pains. For the Safari Park’s giraffe and rhino calves, the challenge is the transition from milk to solid food. Leroy, a Uganda giraffe, was born in a maternity corral on January 8, 2014. At two weeks old, Safari Park veterinarians determined that Leroy suffered from a severe bacterial infection that they treated with antibiotics and IV fluids, making nursing impossible. His human keepers became his surrogate parents and bottle-fed him three to five times a day.

A young Leroy is offered a bottle of milk from the back of a keeper truck.

A young Leroy is offered a bottle of milk from the back of a keeper truck.

After 39 days of hospitalization, Leroy was released into the Safari Park’s East Africa habitat with the rest of the Uganda giraffe herd. Leroy’s recovery was great news for both the keepers and for the endangered Uganda giraffe subspecies as a whole. Only about 700 Uganda giraffes still roam the wild.
But Leroy needed to learn how to be a giraffe. The gangly seven-foot calf touched visitors’ hearts as he cantered toward the keeper trucks at feeding time. A keeper stood on the bed of the pickup truck hidden under a giraffe-patterned blanket and fed the hungry baby from a bottle the size of a dachshund.

By the time Leroy turned seven months, he was sampling giraffe pellets from the feeders. Giraffes are typically weaned by their mothers at around six months old, so Leroy was on target, even though he was raised by humans. Caravan Safari guides ripped acacia leaves in half to create “baby food” and held the leaves firmly for the calf so he would feel like he was plucking leaves from an acacia tree with his prehensile tongue.

Caravan Safari participants, riding in the truck in the background, can now offer Leroy tender acacia leaves.

Caravan Safari participants, riding in the truck in the background, can now offer Leroy tender acacia leaves.

Leroy is a quick study. He has figured out that the Caravan Safari trucks are like the ice cream truck! Guests now feed him on Caravan Safari tours. Normally, guests look up at a 16-foot-tall giraffe’s face as they hand feed, but Leroy munches at eye level. When I ask guests for their favorite parts of the tour, they normally say, “Feeding Leroy!”

Elise Newman is a Caravan Safari guide at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Read her previous post, Upcycling: Recycling at Its Finest.

5

Fishing Cats: It Takes Two

Fishing cats are native to southern Asia.

Fishing cats are native to southern Asia.

The San Diego Zoo has welcomed the birth of 34 fishing cats over the years, but we have not had a successfully breeding pair of endangered fishing cats since 1999. Our current fishing cat female, Parvati, gave birth to one kitten at the Columbus Zoo in Ohio. But our male, Bullet, is unproven and underrepresented, genetically speaking. It has been keeper Aimee Goldcamp’s sincere desire to see that Bullet has a chance to father some young. Bullet, on the other hand (or paw), isn’t quite as motivated.

You see, Bullet was hand raised at another facility before coming here, and, although he is larger, he is a bit intimidated by his potential mate, Parvati. I was surprised, therefore, when Aimee called me the other morning to say that Parvati was chittering, making the sound an adult female fishing cat makes when she is in estrous and wants the attentions of a male. I dashed over to record this unique sound to share with our blog readers. Yes, I’m always thinking of you!

When I arrived, Parvati was walking around the exhibit, emitting her call now and then. Rather than sounding inviting, the chitter seemed a little angry to me. Guests strolling by the exhibit thought she was telling her keeper it was time for food! But Aimee assured us all that Parvati only makes this sound when she is “in the mood,” and we all felt lucky to hear it. Unfortunately, our gibbon pair living nearby decided this was the time to make their morning territorial hoots and whoops, so it was difficult to record Parvati’s chitters without also getting some gibbon-speak!

Here’s an extremely short audio clip of Parvait’s chitter call:

Still, it was fascinating to watch Parvati pull out all the stops to entice Bullet to come out of the bedroom area and join her in the exhibit. In addition to calling and strolling by the bedroom door, Parvati rubbed her scent on rocks and logs and rolled around provocatively in the sand. Bullet did come to the door to watch her lolling beneath him, but he was unmoved to take action.

It is said that timing is everything, and that is true for cat courtship as well. I learned that the fishing cat exhibit had been closed for some remodeling, with new logs, vegetation, and fencing installed. Bullet had been surprised and a bit unnerved by the changes to his home of six years. Wouldn’t you know it? The day after the exhibit re-opened was the day Parvati felt her maternal calling!

Bullet may still come through for Parvati. After all, “romance” can happen in the off-exhibit bedroom areas as well. There are cameras mounted back there to record any happenings of interest. Who knows—we may yet hear the pitter-patter of little fishing cat paws again!

Debbie Andreen is an associate editor for San Diego Zoo Global. Read her previous post, Scents for Polar Bears.

81

Panda Bai Yun’s Tooth

 

Dr. Sutherland-Smith used a light to seal a dental composite during a restorative dental procedure on Bai Yun.

Dr. Sutherland-Smith used a light to seal a dental composite during a restorative dental procedure on Bai Yun.

Yesterday morning, September 10, a dental procedure on giant panda Bai Yun was performed by a team of veterinary service staff. I was fortunate enough to attend and watch! The whole experience was fascinating to observe, and I was impressed at how diligently the San Diego Zoo’s veterinary team cared for and treated our beloved Bai Yun.

The reason for the procedure was that keepers had noticed there was a chip in one of Bai Yun’s lower canines. As most of you know, giant pandas use their teeth to chew and break apart bamboo, tearing apart the stalks to look for the culm (soft, inner tissue of the bamboo). A chip such as the one in Bai Yun’s canine isn’t uncommon, especially for a panda of her age. Remember: she just turned 23!

In order for the veterinary team to get a close look and perform a dental exam, Bai Yun needed to be taken to the San Diego Zoo’s Jennings Center for Zoological Medicine. Once Bai Yun was anesthetized at the Giant Panda Research Station, she was carefully transported to the on-grounds veterinary hospital so staff there could get a closer look at the canine in question. They performed a dental exam and took some X-rays of the chipped canine tooth, after which they concluded that a restorative procedure could be done to fix the tooth. A warming blanket kept Bai Yun’s body temperature at a comfortable level. Surrounded by all of the vet team members and their equipment, I was surprised that she seemed smaller to me than when I see her in her exhibit. Crazy, huh?

Dr. Meg Sutherland-Smith, who is our associate director of veterinary services,  filled in the chipped part of the tooth with a dental composite and then used a special light to cure the composite. Dr. Sutherland-Smith noted that originally they had some concerns that the pulp canal of Bai Yun’s chipped canine had been compromised, but she was happy to report that it wasn’t compromised after all, and she noted that the restorative procedure should help prevent any further chipping or deterioration.

After the dental procedure was completed, a veterinary technician performed a dental cleaning on all of Bai Yun’s teeth and then assisted as Dr. Sutherland-Smith took a few images inside Bai Yun’s mouth with a specialized dental camera. Bai Yun was then transferred into a panda transport cage, which allowed her to wake from the anesthesia while still being in the veterinary hospital’s treatment room. Veterinary staff closely watched as Bai Yun woke up, monitoring her breathing and vital signs throughout the process. I checked in with our panda team a few hours later to get an update on Bai Yun. The team reported that Bai Yun was doing great and was comfortably resting back in her own bedroom suite.

Watching this dental procedure was such an incredible experience. It showed me firsthand how hard our animal care teams work to care for our animals at the San Diego Zoo.

Ina Saliklis is a public relations representative for San Diego Zoo Global. Read her previous post, Planning a Panda Snow Day.

Note: We hope to include a video with this post soon.

2

Hide and Seek: Followers and Tuckers

A Przewalski’s horse foal strolls next to Mom at the Safari Park.

A Przewalski’s horse foal strolls next to Mom at the Safari Park.

Spring and summer mark baby season at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, and animal babies at the Safari Park fall into two categories: followers and tuckers. Followers walk, run, and jump within a half hour of birth. They follow their mothers and their herd. They can run from predators. A Przewalski’s foal is able to stand, walk, trot, neigh, and nibble forage on its birthday. Within a week, the foal is able to kick a predator to defend itself. A Przewalski’s foal born at the Safari Park on June 26, 2014, already forages independently in the field exhibit.

A baby gazelle is tucked against a log for safe keeping by Mom.

A baby gazelle is tucked against a log for safe keeping by Mom.

Conversely, tuckers are “tucked” near a rock, tree, or dirt mound after birth. The herd avoids the baby to keep its location secret. Even the tucker’s mother avoids her baby, only coming back a few times a day to nurse. She also moves her baby to different hidden locations to confuse predators. Tuckers are completely helpless, so they stay as still as possible and blend in to their surroundings, even if a predator approaches. Thomson’s gazelles are tuckers. They are the favorite food of cheetahs—infant gazelles don’t stand a chance against them. Gazelle mothers hide their babies in tall grasses for multiple days until they are strong enough to keep up with the herd. A “Tommy” calf born at the Park on June 19, 2014, still looks like a tan rock in the grass.

A gazelle baby gets an ear notch as part of its first exam.

A gazelle baby gets an ear notch as part of its first exam.

Keepers have a tough job with tucker offspring. The baby is easy to catch to give it its first exam, because tuckers can’t run yet, but keepers have to first find the baby. Have you ever tried to find a completely still infant gazelle in a 60-acre exhibit? Good luck. On a Caravan Safari, I have the privilege of watching the action first-hand and even helping keepers spot the tuckers!

Elise Newman is a Caravan Safari guide at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park.

8

Condor Cam Chick Needs Name

Name the Condor ChickHatched on April 29, a small condor chick emerged into the world observed closely by animal care staff at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Adding to the more than 180 condors hatched at the Safari Park since the breeding program began in 1982, the little chick was placed with adult condors Sulu and Towich so they could raise it to adulthood. Its growth has been watched by thousands of people through a live Condor Cam placed in the nest box. Now animal care staff are asking these interested watchers to help choose a name for the young female bird.

Viewers can go online at http://bit.ly/condorname to vote for one of five suggested names. In keeping with the tradition of the condor program, the names have been selected from the Kumeyaay language. The name receiving the most votes will be used for the chick for the rest of its life. Voting closes at end of day on July 20.

“California condors are an important native species in the western United States and hold a special place not only in the ecosystem but in the culture of the people native to this area,” said Michael Mace, curator of birds at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. “By giving condors names from the Kumeyaay language, we hope to honor the role of condors in human culture throughout history.”

At more than 2 months of age, the condor chick is covered with fluffy, gray feathers and is still closely cared for by its foster parents. The young bird will continue to grow and mature over the next couple of months until its flight feathers grow in and it is ready to leave the nest. Animal care staff at the Safari Park hope that the chick will be able to take its place among the wild populations that have been released in California, Arizona and Mexico.

CONTACT: SAN DIEGO ZOO GLOBAL PUBLIC RELATIONS, 619-685-3291

16

Tigers Adjust to New Home

Tiger JoAnne is ready to meet you!

Tiger JoAnne is ready to meet you!

It’s hard to believe that it’s already been three weeks since the grand opening of the Tull Family Tiger Trail at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park! In that time, we’ve been more than impressed with how well the cats have acclimated to their new daily routines, as well as to the influx of all of their human guests! Many of the tigers seem to really enjoy making themselves as visible as possible at the glass viewing areas and appear to have a great time watching their spectators (especially the kids). The cats have quickly overcome any of the stage fright they may have first felt during their daily training demonstrations and are now quite happy to show off their skills at the interpretive wall for all those who are willing to watch!

As the cats have become more comfortable, we’ve also started to rotate them more throughout the different exhibits, making sure each of the cats gets to check out the features of each yard at least a couple of times per week. This not only gives them a chance to take advantage of all the great features in each yard but also helps to keep them active and enriched, as they get to check out all of the smells left behind by the cat before them!

When the cats aren’t on exhibit, they are enjoying the cool and comfortable accommodations of their new house. Enrichment toys, bedding, and scents furnish each of the eight rooms and are changed daily to delight their curious natures. The cats are brought into their bedrooms every morning, where we feed them their breakfast and then work on trained behaviors to challenge their minds and encourage problem solving. The tiger house also features a number of features to better allow for routine care, such as desensitization of things like voluntary blood draws, injections, ultrasounds, and crating.

With all of the wonderful elements for the tigers in both the exhibits and the house, we’re certainly able to provide these cats with fun-filled and exciting days! Be sure to watch them daily on Tiger Cam.

Lori Gallo is a keeper at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Read her previous post, Meet the Tigers on Tiger Cam.

13

A Jaguar’s Legacy

We'll miss you, Orson!

We’ll miss you, Orson!

The final day of April was a somber one at the San Diego Zoo, as we had to say goodbye to Orson, our melanistic jaguar. At an extraordinarily advanced age of over 21 years, Orson had developed irreversible geriatric conditions that had begun to impact his quality of life. Fortunately, we can take solace that Orson’s legacy will carry on through the countless people he entertained, amazed, and inspired throughout his life.

Orson had many unique traits that drew people to him. The most obvious was his handsome melanistic coloring that only betrayed his spots when the sunlight hit his coat just right. His most engaging trait was simply that he habitually perched front and center where visitors could see him up close and bask in his impressive roar from mere feet away. Many people also fondly recall the weekly tug-of–war matches Orson had with his keepers. Using a hanging pulley system, Orson would battle a team of keepers, which were several times his weight but only a fraction of his strength, for the rights to a shank of meat. Needless to say, Orson always won!

Orson’s effect on people was obvious from the legions of members who made weekly pilgrimages to visit him to the numerous guests who could clearly remember him despite many years passing between visits. I’m sure that a great number of visitors over the years would agree with a teenager who once told me that seeing Orson was a “life-changing experience.” A visit with Orson clearly enhanced people’s respect for jaguars, wildlife, and our natural world in general.

At times the celebrity status Orson enjoyed could rub off slightly onto his keepers. In my time away from the Zoo, I moonlight as a hockey referee. One night after a game, I was leaving the ice and heard someone yell, “Hey, ref!” from the stands. As a rule of thumb, no one has a compliment to give a referee, so I put my head down and quickened my pace toward the locker room. The voice continued, “Hey, ref! We know you. You take care of Orson.”

It was a privilege to take care of such a charismatic animal who was a legend in his own time. Although we will all miss Orson, his legacy will live on in the people he amazed, the children he inspired, and the hearts he touched.

Todd Speis is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo. Read his previous post, Cheers to a Local Legend.

14

Tatqiq: Odd Bear Out

Tatqiq is sure to enjoy Snow Day on Saturday, May 17, 2014!

Tatqiq is sure to enjoy Snow Day on Saturday, May 17, 2014!

Breeding season for polar bears is typically January through June. For Kalluk and Chinook in particular, it can happen anytime in that window. This year, the breeding window began on April 23, 2014, and usually lasts anywhere from 4 to 14 days. In 2013, it occurred in January and only lasted four days. This year, we are seven days into the process and breeding is still happening. However, the frequency has diminished quite a bit from the first few days.

Science still knows very little about polar bear reproduction. What we do know is that polar bears are both induced “ovulators” and delayed “implanters.”

Induced ovulation means that the females don’t have a normal estrus cycle like many mammals do. Male bears follow around females for days or weeks at a time, “wining and dining” them until they are receptive to breeding. Once ovulation is induced, then breeding will commence.

Delayed implantation is tricky because it makes gestation periods and birth dates difficult to predict. Unlike most mammals, after polar bears successfully copulate, they are not immediately pregnant. The fertilized egg remains in a suspended state until conditions are right, at which point the egg implants in the uterus and gestation can begin.

Until late May/early June, Tatqiq is, unfortunately, the odd bear out. Chinook’s hormones are raging, and she is less tolerant of Tatqiq during this time period. Kalluk generally does a good job of breaking up squabbles and moving his sister to a safer spot away from Chinook. If you have been watching the Polar Cam in recent weeks, you have probably noticed Tatqiq seeking refuge in the back corner near the waterfall. This is her safety zone and the spot where she feels she can best defend herself. It is our job as keepers to recognize these changes in behavior and adapt our management strategy. Because of the increased tension between the two females, you will usually only see Kalluk and Chinook on exhibit after 12:30 p.m. When the keepers pull the bears off exhibit for their final meal of the day, we give Tatqiq the polar bear penthouse where she has her own private pool, grass, trees, and air-conditioned bedrooms.

Once breeding season is over, you will again see Kalluk and Tatqiq playing together and there will be less aggression between the two females. Be sure to watch the action daily on Polar Cam!

The Polar Bear Team

135

An Enriched Elephant Herd

The kids enjoy an early-morning pool party.

The kids enjoy an early-morning pool party.

As chronicled in my last post, Tracking Safari Park Elephants, both keepers and researchers consistently strive to improve the welfare of our elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. One such way we can enhance welfare is through the use of enrichment. Enrichment provides our elephants with opportunities to engage in species-appropriate behaviors. Making changes to their social groupings, along with providing more variety in the types and amounts of browse food items given, has proved extremely beneficial. The separation and reuniting of individuals from yard to yard encourages heightened levels of social behavior. Access to bodies of water can encourage everything from taking a simple drink to providing a good place to cool off, and is occasionally a great venue for a full-on pool party!

Vus'Musi and Msholo spar.

Vus’musi and Msholo spar.

Our overarching aim is to maintain a high diversity of positive naturalistic behaviors: we want our elephants to be elephants, and it takes a lot of work to ensure they receive those opportunities. Every morning, keepers go over the plan for the day, and that plan always involves some type of enrichment. One of my personal favorites is when a fresh mud bog is made in the west yard, a task that requires much skill to produce the perfect consistency of mud. The elephants then get to spend the day wallowing, playing, and cooling off in it. Feeder puzzles are another fun device. Some are round while some are rectangular, and all are filled with alfalfa pellets or fresh hay. To get to the food product inside, the elephants have to kick, push, and use their heads (literally and figuratively!), all of which provides them with both mental and physical stimulation while satisfying their appetite.

Swazi reaches up to a hay pile above her head with Msholo, Mac, Emanti, Kami, and Qinisa nearby.

Swazi reaches up to a hay pile above her head with Msholo, Mac, Emanti, Kami, and Qinisa nearby.

Because enrichment is deployed every day, creative minds have to band together to keep the environment as unpredictable as possible. One recent example of this is the variety of produce that is now being introduced (such as romaine lettuce, cucumbers, and celery) to go along with the alfalfa pellets that the elephants receive. Another example is the frequent change in placement of common enrichment products. The Boomer Ball that was previously in the east yard may show up the next day in the pool of the west yard. Even celebrating the birthday of an elephant switches up the herd’s diet and overall schedule, and because it doesn’t happen every day, it is also a very enriching event.

There are many ways to keep the elephants both mentally and physically engaged with their environment, but all require teamwork, scattered scheduling, and creative minds. The next time you’re watching Elephant Cam or visiting our African elephant herd at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, keep an eye out for any interesting behaviors or interactions resulting from our enrichment efforts. Maybe M’sholo and Vus’musi will be playing in the pool. Perhaps Kami will be kicking around a feeder puzzle, or Swazi will munch on some alfalfa hay. Whichever behaviors you observe, you’ll be witnessing the results of our efforts to ensure that our herd is fully enriched!

Charlotte Hacker is a research technician for the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research.

19

Orangutan Aisha at 5 Months

What fun to watch Aisha grow!

What fun to watch Aisha grow!

The past five months have gone by so fast! Little orangutan Aisha is growing by leaps and bounds. I forget how small she actually was until I see a picture of her first day outside. Indah continues to be a great mother. She seems even more relaxed with Aisha than she did with Cinta, her first offspring.

The last few weeks have seen an increase in Aisha’s activity level on exhibit. Typically, Indah is active and moving around the exhibit first thing in the morning, and by 11a.m., she finds a comfortable perch in the climbing structure and relaxes for the rest of her time on exhibit, with Aisha hanging on her. Lately, we have seen Aisha off of Mom on the climbing structure and hammocks—it’s so exciting! At first, Indah’s hand was right there, and she was very vigilant. Now, Indah will be a few feet away, sometimes with her back to Aisha, and one time Indah even left the tree and went to the ground for a few minutes! It is amazing to see Aisha on her own, so interested in her surroundings.

Mom and baby are still going inside at 1p.m. so the siamangs can go on exhibit. It will be a while before we are comfortable introducing the baby to the siamangs. Because of male siamang Unkie’s previous behavior with Cinta, we do not want to try this too early, as it could result in unnecessary stress to Indah and Aisha or possibly injury.

When inside, Indah is even more relaxed. At a very young age Indah would put Aisha down in the bedroom and let her explore. It varies greatly between individual mothers when they break that mother-child contact for the first time. Literature has the range as early as 2 months and as late as 18 months. Indah was definitely on the low end of the range! She feels very safe in her bedroom and knows that there is no threat to Aisha inside. In her bedroom, Aisha climbs up the bars and across the ropes and back again. She is very active, but sometimes she just wants to be on Mom. We have a camera system set up in the bedroom, and this has really allowed us to see behaviors between Mom and baby and to see early development that we would not have seen if we were standing there watching. Indah typically is more protective if there are people present and usually will grab Aisha and hold her until people leave the area.

Aisha still does not have any teeth, but she is tasting everything, and everything goes into her mouth. She eats lettuce and would probably eat or try to eat other foods, but Indah is not good with sharing. The majority of Aisha’s nutrition is from nursing.

I get asked a lot how much Aisha weighs. Even though Indah lets Aisha climb and move around, she would never leave Aisha and move to another area without her. We can get weights anytime on Mom and baby together.

It will be great to see Aisha grow and change in the coming months. Every day I am excited to get to work and see all the cute stuff she does. Everything she does is cute!

Tanya Howard is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo. Read her previous post, Orangutan Personalities.