Polar Bears

Polar Bears

47

Scents for Polar Bears

Kalluk thinks snow is the PERFECT enrichment for polar bears!

Kalluk thinks snow is the PERFECT enrichment for polar bears!

Lions and tigers love perfume and giant pandas enjoy the smell of cinnamon, but do the San Diego Zoo’s polar bears get a kick out of scent enrichment, too? Keeper Matt Price explained to me that although our Arctic bruins have impressive sniffers, they don’t go all crazy rubbing around in smelly things like some critters do!

Keepers do have an impressive arsenal of scents on hand for the animals in their care. Various perfumes, essential oils, spices, and even synthetic urine from other species are used from time to time to give our Zoo animals something different to experience, investigate, or delight in. The big cats and pandas roll around in the scent, seemingly trying to spread it all over their body. But the polar bears’ reaction is different: they give the new smell a good sniff and then go on with whatever activity they were doing—no big deal! So instead, Matt or his fellow keepers make a scent trail that leads the bear to a big payoff—an extra-special food treat or new toy. The bear follows the smell to the prize!

There is one type of scent enrichment that DOES get more of a reaction from our polar bears: camel and llama hair. Keepers collect the shed hair and place it in small piles for the bears, who roll around in it with great gusto!

Debbie Andreen is an editor for San Diego Zoo Global. Read her previous post, Gao Gao: Class Clown.

91

Spring Cleaning for Polar Bears

Tatqiq really enjoyed her snow day last year!

Tatqiq really enjoyed her snow day last year!

The San Diego Zoo’s polar bears will be off exhibit through today while we spruce up their exhibit a bit. Our goal is to provide a dynamic environment for the bears. It is quite the undertaking to move around all of those giant root balls and logs in the exhibit, as well as bring in new ones.

We brought in a crane to lift a 5,000-pound root ball from the elephant yard and place it in the polar exhibit. We hope to be able to do this at least two to three times a year to change up the exhibit for our bears. A wild polar bear’s environment is constantly changing due to the movement of the sea ice, and we feel it is important for our bears as well. We want them to have an exhibit and a home that isn’t always the same every time they leave the bedrooms. At this time you will also see a completely empty exhibit pool. All 150,000 gallons were drained so that we could go in to steam clean and pressure wash the entire surface of the pool. This is something we do once or twice a year.

In addition to moving around existing exhibit features and bringing in new ones, we will also be completely changing their exhibit on Saturday, May 17, by bringing in 18 tons of ice that will be run through a chipper to create snow for our bears. They will have a blast sliding down the hills, tunneling through the snow, and searching for things that we have buried. Generally the snow lasts for four to six days, but with the warm weather we are currently experiencing in San Diego, it could be gone in a day or two.

We hope you will be able to join us on Saturday, May 17, either in person or on Polar Cam so that you can witness all the fun before the snow is gone.

The Polar Bear Team

4

Climate Change: Polar bears, Sea Ice, and Beyond

Kalluk enjoys last year's snow day at the San Diego Zoo.

Kalluk enjoys last year’s snow day at the San Diego Zoo.

Climate change is back in the news and, unfortunately, the news has not been good. A number of recent reports indicate that carbon dioxide in our atmosphere has reached unprecedented levels. At over 400 parts per million, we have reached a number that would have seemed unimaginable just decades ago. But while the scale of this problem is immense, the real power for changing the current trend is within each of us. The choices we make—what we buy, how we spend our time—can lead to dramatic differences in our carbon footprint. It is possible to reverse the current trend if we all commit to changing our daily habits.

There is a vast array of information now available that outlines the many-faceted ways that the changing climate will impact people and ecosystems all over the world. From extreme weather to climate warming, the reach of climate change is broad. And the reason our climate is changing is known: human activities have driven the release of unprecedented levels of carbon dioxide into the Earth’s atmosphere. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a greenhouse gas that effectively blankets the Earth, increasing the amount of heat that stays in our atmosphere. And while we typically associate carbon dioxide emissions with the burning of fossil fuels, such as gas and coal, there are other sources as well that are not as well known. One of the largest contributors to atmospheric carbon is deforestation. Each year, the burning and clearing of tropical forests contributes over 2 billion tons of carbon pollution to the atmosphere.

At the San Diego Zoo, our mission is to connect people to wildlife because that connection can be a powerful force for conservation. I can speak from personal experience as to the power of that connection. Destined for medical school, my career path shifted dramatically because of a chance connection with wildlife. For me, that connection started with the polar bear, a species whose plight has provided some of the defining images associated with climate change, a species whose future we hold in our hands.

As a graduate student, my first field season was spent working out of a remote field camp on the western Hudson Bay, about 15 miles east of Churchill, Manitoba (a.k.a. the Polar Bear Capital of the World). This area, so nicknamed because of the large number of polar bears that congregate there in the fall, was also home to an incredible array of wildlife, including Arctic nesting birds, large herds of caribou, and beluga whales. While polar bears are most numerous and visible during the fall, the bears actually start coming ashore during the summer as the ice on the Bay begins to melt out, and the bears are forced ashore to begin a long fast.

Our field research was primarily done on foot, with miles and miles of walking over the course of the long Arctic summer days, and the possibility of bumping into a polar bear meant that safety measures were taken seriously and practiced regularly. The most basic and important safety measure we had while walking in the field was to scan the horizon with binoculars every few minute, in hopes of spotting any polar bears in the vicinity while they were still a good distance away. On the day I saw my first bear, it was relatively early in the season for polar bears, but the ice had begun to break up on the Bay, a harbinger of polar bears to come. Scan after scan, I saw nothing and continued with my work. And then suddenly, I looked up, and saw a young male bear easily without binoculars, less than 50 feet away. How long had he been following me? Luckily, I was able to make my way safely back to camp. And while it was truly scary to see a bear so close, it was also an event that left an enormous impression on me. It initiated my love of the species and cemented my passion for conserving wildlife and wild places.

Around that same time (the mid-1990s), biologists studying polar bears in the Canadian Arctic documented changes that were occurring within that population of polar bears. These scientists found that reductions in reproductive parameters were correlated with the warming air temperatures that had been documented between 1950 and 1990 and, most importantly, with an increasingly long period where the Hudson Bay was ice free. Because polar bears are completely dependent upon the sea ice for their survival, the directional trend toward less and less ice was of great concern. Twenty years later, I am happy to say that the polar bear is one of the species that I get to study, but saddened to say that the Earth’s CO2 emissions have continued to increase and that the impacts of climate change on polar bears have intensified. No other species better illustrates the impact of climate change on wildlife. Like a real-life version of the game “Break the Ice,” the polar bear’s habitat is disappearing, the ice literally melting at their feet. Their fate is in our hands.

Chinook and Kalluk have been breeding for the past couple of weeks, and we are hopeful, as in years past, that this breeding season will result in the birth of a polar cub in the fall. We will monitor Chinook closely for behavioral and physiological signs of pregnancy and learn as much as we can about the reproductive biology of these amazing animals. Keepers, researchers, and visitors alike have an amazing opportunity to observe our bears in the water and on land at the San Diego Zoo, and in so doing, learn about climate change and the impact that this human-driven change is having on wild polar bears and the Arctic sea ice environment. Polar bears exemplify the role of “conservation ambassadors,” and it is hard to deny the impressive nature of their strength, intelligence, and adaptations to life on the frozen Arctic Ocean.

Climate change may sound like old news to some. Images of polar bears stranded on ice floes were once a common sight in the popular press, but like most news stories, many people have moved on. Unfortunately, climate change has not gone away, and the negative impacts of sea-ice losses on polar bears continue to eke away at their once-pristine Arctic home. I am hopeful that the reemergence of climate change into the news cycle will invigorate people’s interest in doing their part to reverse the trends in CO2 emissions. I am hopeful also that we all seek those connections to nature and wildlife that are so important for engaging us in conservation issues. We can all make a difference.

For those who love our polar bears, and for those who are interested in learning more about how climate change is impacting the species’ Arctic sea ice habitat, I recommend visiting the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) website. This page provides daily updates on sea ice conditions in the polar regions, as well as year by year interactive graphics of the dynamic changes in sea ice extent.

Megan Owen is an associate director with the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research. Read her previous post, Our Panda Conservation Program.

14

Tatqiq: Odd Bear Out

Tatqiq is sure to enjoy Snow Day on Saturday, May 17, 2014!

Tatqiq is sure to enjoy Snow Day on Saturday, May 17, 2014!

Breeding season for polar bears is typically January through June. For Kalluk and Chinook in particular, it can happen anytime in that window. This year, the breeding window began on April 23, 2014, and usually lasts anywhere from 4 to 14 days. In 2013, it occurred in January and only lasted four days. This year, we are seven days into the process and breeding is still happening. However, the frequency has diminished quite a bit from the first few days.

Science still knows very little about polar bear reproduction. What we do know is that polar bears are both induced “ovulators” and delayed “implanters.”

Induced ovulation means that the females don’t have a normal estrus cycle like many mammals do. Male bears follow around females for days or weeks at a time, “wining and dining” them until they are receptive to breeding. Once ovulation is induced, then breeding will commence.

Delayed implantation is tricky because it makes gestation periods and birth dates difficult to predict. Unlike most mammals, after polar bears successfully copulate, they are not immediately pregnant. The fertilized egg remains in a suspended state until conditions are right, at which point the egg implants in the uterus and gestation can begin.

Until late May/early June, Tatqiq is, unfortunately, the odd bear out. Chinook’s hormones are raging, and she is less tolerant of Tatqiq during this time period. Kalluk generally does a good job of breaking up squabbles and moving his sister to a safer spot away from Chinook. If you have been watching the Polar Cam in recent weeks, you have probably noticed Tatqiq seeking refuge in the back corner near the waterfall. This is her safety zone and the spot where she feels she can best defend herself. It is our job as keepers to recognize these changes in behavior and adapt our management strategy. Because of the increased tension between the two females, you will usually only see Kalluk and Chinook on exhibit after 12:30 p.m. When the keepers pull the bears off exhibit for their final meal of the day, we give Tatqiq the polar bear penthouse where she has her own private pool, grass, trees, and air-conditioned bedrooms.

Once breeding season is over, you will again see Kalluk and Tatqiq playing together and there will be less aggression between the two females. Be sure to watch the action daily on Polar Cam!

The Polar Bear Team

40

What to Eat When There’s Nothing to Eat?

Bear ambassador Mi Ton Teiow finds relatively shallow snow, but no food, as the northern winter begins.

Bear ambassador Mi Ton Teiow finds relatively shallow snow, but no food, as the northern winter begins.

The answer? Nothing.

Most of us are familiar with the idea that some bears spend long periods of time in dens, inactive and not consuming significant amounts of food or water. Some bears in some locations survive eating nothing by doing almost nothing. They become inactive, which is sometimes called winter sleep or hibernation. Although you may be familiar with this aspect of bear ecology, have you thought about how incredible it is? These big mammals can go without eating or drinking for months, sometimes while birthing and nursing cubs, yet wake up without bedsores or weakened muscles! This is why the physiology of bears, including that of giant pandas and polar bears, has been a hot field of research.

The only way for a wild American black bear to survive for months without food in the northern U.S. is to save energy by hibernating in a safe, insulated den. The hole to the right of the tree trunk is the only obvious indication that there is an American black bear below the snow.

The only way for a wild American black bear to survive for months without food in the northern US is to save energy by hibernating in a safe, insulated den. The hole to the right of the tree trunk is the only obvious indication that there is an American black bear below the snow.

Although all female bears seclude themselves in dens to give birth to cubs, not all bears enter dens for long periods of time. There’s even variation within species in whether or not individual bears remain in dens or for how long. Researchers have found that in general, bears spend long periods in dens not to avoid cold temperatures, but to reduce their metabolic requirements when there is not enough food to survive environmental conditions. So, in the southern part of their range where their energy balance can remain positive, individual brown bears, Asiatic black bears, and American black bears may not den except to give birth. At last year’s meeting of the International Association for Bear Research and Management (see post, A Whimsical Bear Ambassador Arrives), Lorraine Scotson and Dave Garshelis reported that some sun bears might den for periods of time in the most northern parts of their range, meaning that non-reproductive denning may occur among at least half of the world’s bear species.

The holes melted in the snow are made by the black bear’s respiration.

The holes melted in the snow are made by the black bear’s respiration.

The giant panda is one bear species that has not been known to den in response to a relative lack of food, and perhaps it cannot do so. During the rare times when all the bamboo plants in an area have flowered and then died, the giant pandas have left the area in search of food; they have not entered dens. Perhaps this is because a bamboo die-off is unpredictable from the giant panda’s point of view, or perhaps this is because a giant panda eating bamboo cannot build up sufficient energy reserves to be able to wait out the lean time in a den, or maybe both factors play a role.

Adult polar bears also do not enter dens solely to avoid food shortages. Pregnant polar bears do spend prolonged periods of time in dens, but biologists think other adult polar bears don’t do so. However, polar bears in some populations regularly fast for extended periods when sea ice conditions don’t allow them to hunt. As for other bears, anything that causes a polar bear to expend more energy, whether inside or outside of a den, or to fast for a longer period of time, makes it less likely that the bear will survive. Climate change is doing just that by reducing the amount of sea ice available to polar bears: the bears expend more energy and go without eating for a longer period of time, creating a great challenge for the conservation of this species (see Polar Bears, Climate Change, and Mi Ton Teiow).

Hibernating bears often line their den with leaves, twigs, and grasses, insulating themselves from the cold ground and conserving additional energy.

Hibernating bears often line their den with leaves, twigs, and grasses, insulating themselves from the cold ground and conserving additional energy.

The Bear Specialist Group’s Ambassador Mi Ton Teiow recently made a visit to the northern US, where he found plenty of snow but little food for bears. After a short stay in this area, which receives an average of 45 inches of snow per year, the ambassador returned (fled?) back to sunny San Diego, where the last measurable snow fell on the city in 1967. The odds are good that Ambassador Mi will not be snow camping in San Diego any time soon.

Russ Van Horn is a scientist with the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research. Read his previous post, Courtship in Front of the Camera.

34

Spring in Air for Polar Bears

Kalluk digs a pile of snow.

Kalluk digs a pile of snow.

For those of us who live in San Diego, it nearly always feels like spring. (Sorry to those who are experiencing the polar vortex that hit a majority of the country recently!) Despite our consistent temperatures in San Diego, our polar bears follow seasonal changes similar to their wild counterparts in the Arctic.

We recently completed denning season, which normally occurs in the fall months (see Is Chinook Pregnant?). Now we are expecting to start a new cycle: breeding season! Those of you watching our Polar Cam may have noticed three bears on exhibit again. Chinook was reintroduced to Kalluk and Tatqiq after her months of requested seclusion. Chinook was showing some interesting behaviors associated with den making, but we eventually determined that she would not have cubs this time around.

The reintroduction went smoothly, and all the bears acted calmly. At first, Kalluk followed Chinook very closely while she walked around the exhibit. Then they both jumped into the pool for over an hour of play. Eventually, Kalluk was able to separate himself from Chinook, and all the bears rested in their favorite spots in Polar Bear Plunge.

Kalluk has been showing signs that he is getting ready for breeding season, such as an increased interest in sniffing Chinook’s footsteps and urine. However, Chinook is mainly acting coy and disinterested in Kalluk other than play (which certainly could be interpreted as slightly flirtatious behavior). Stay tuned as the saga continues…

Polar Bear Team

52

Polar Bears, Climate Change, and Mi (Ton Teiow)

Tatqiq's wild counterparts need more snow days.

Tatqiq’s wild counterparts need more snow days.

Mi Ton Teiow, the whimsical “bear” ambassador for the IUCN’s Bear Specialist Group (see post A Whimsical Bear Ambassador Arrives), has continued his travels, along with staff from the San Diego Zoo’s Institute for Conservation Research. With these travels, Mi is gaining experience in the multi-faceted world of bear conservation, which often includes extended periods of sitting and talking! While Mi might be anxious to get outside and do field research, our bear ambassador also understands that bringing people together to discuss the nuts and bolts of bear conservation is an important, and necessary, part of the process.

Recently, Mi traveled to the Toledo Zoo to sit in on the annual meeting of the Polar Bear Species Survival Plan (SSP). The role of the SSP (for polar bears or any other conservation-dependent species) is to bring together experts from zoos around the country to ensure that the members of the zoo community are being as effective as possible in supporting conservation efforts for the species. The focus of this SSP meeting was to enhance the synergy between zoo-based research, field-based research, and effective polar bear conservation. Speakers from the U.S. Geological Survey and researchers from the San Diego Zoo, Cincinnati Zoo, and Memphis Zoo presented overviews on current research and results, as well as ideas for the future.

Mi (center) and Megan (standing second from the right) pose with other members of the Polar Bear SSP.

Mi (center) and Megan (standing second from the right) pose with members of the Polar Bear SSP.

While listening in on discussions regarding conservation research, Mi also learned about the primary threat to polar bears: greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities have led to measurable and rapid changes in global climate patterns. The degree and character of these changes is not uniform, and different regions, ecosystems, and species are being impacted in different ways. When it comes to climate warming, scientists have documented the greatest degree of warming at the Earth’s polar regions.

This is bad news for the polar bear, because increases in both air and ocean temperatures in the Arctic have resulted in rapid losses of sea ice over the past several decades. Polar bears depend on the sea ice for their survival. Without the sea ice, polar bears cannot feed themselves or reproduce successful. This dependence on sea ice has left polar bears vulnerable to extinction in the face of climate change.

While the situation is critical for polar bears, it is not hopeless. Each and every one of us has the ability to help save polar bears by making small changes in our daily lives, such as turning off unneeded lights and riding our bikes more, to reduce our carbon footprint along the way. Because zoos have tremendous access to a large number and wide range of people, we play a critical role in polar bear conservation. As a conservation organization, we are responsible to get the word out, and we are happy that we were able to share our work with ambassador Mi Ton Teiow.

Megan Owen is an associate director for the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research.
Read about Ambassador Mi Ton Teiow’s previous adventure in Black Bears: A Conservation Success.

43

Is Chinook Pregnant?

Chinook, left, and Kalluk frolicked in the snow a few months ago.

Chinook, left, and Kalluk frolicked in the snow a few months ago.

Around this time of year for the past few years, the number one question we are asked by those familiar with our polar bears is “Is Chinook pregnant?” We nearly always answer with “We sure hope so, but….” Some of you may wonder why we are so elusive with our answer year after year. There are a number of reasons, none of them clandestine. Mainly, the polar bear community is still searching for all the answers. Things are complex in the polar bear world!

Did you know that polar bears have a wide range for gestation, spanning from 164 to 294 days in the wild (195 to 265 days in managed care)? If we determined possible birth on this information alone, this year Chinook could have given birth from July through September, based on when she bred with our male, Kalluk. However, we are aware of research that has studied historic data of births of wild bears and with other observations in the wild. It is hypothesized that date of breeding may not solely determine date of possible birth. Instead, it is a little more complicated than counting days from breeding time. Births generally occur between November and December, with the occasional birth outside those months even when breeding occurs in January, for example (when Kalluk and Chinook bred). Lastly, female polar bears have both induced ovulation and delayed implantation, which makes determining timing and the triggers involved difficult.

We are trying! Through research, we are continuing to learn more and more. Every other day, we collect urine samples from Chinook and fecal samples three times per week, all for hormone analysis. With Chinook’s full cooperation, we perform ultrasound exams weekly once her den is in place. (The den was set up this year at the end of September.) Through research and collaboration, we hope to gain new insights into the complexities of polar bear reproduction and give you more definitive answers in the future to the question, “Is Chinook pregnant?”

The Polar Bear Team, San Diego  Zoo

Watch the bears daily on Polar Cam.

493

Whimsical Bear Ambassador Arrives

Ambassador Mi travels the world in an effort to aid in the conservation of bears.

Ambassador Mi travels the world in an effort to aid in the conservation of bears.

There are eight bear species living today, and, until recently, the San Diego Zoo hosted ambassadors for five of them. We’re happy to announce the arrival at San Diego Zoo Global of another bear ambassador: Ambassador Mi Ton Teiow, also known as Traveling Bear. Ambassador Mi represents all eight living bear species as the special traveling ambassador of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Bear Specialist Group (BSG). As such, Mi travels “to gain worldly experience and aid in bear conservation endeavors” and to promote the conservation of bears.

Ambassador Mi was “born” in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and has since traveled to Canada, South Korea, India, Venezuela, and the US (Minnesota). Mi was officially posted to the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research (ICR) at the recent conference of the International Association for Bear Research and Management in Utah, and plans are underway for Mi to travel with our staff both internationally (China, India, and Peru) and within the US before traveling to Greece in October 2014. This bear gets around!

Although you may never have heard of the IUCN or the BSG, these are among the most credible international groups for the conservation of wildlife, and bears. The IUCN is the world’s oldest and largest global environmental organization, composed of more than 1,200 member organizations, including more than 200 governmental and 900 nongovernmental organizations. The BSG is one part of the IUCN, and it is made up entirely of more than 200 volunteer scientists from around the world. Several of our scientists are part of the BSG in various Expert Teams, including Ron Swaisgood (co-chair, Giant Panda Expert Team), Megan Owen (member, Captive Bear Expert Team), and Russ Van Horn (member, Andean Bear Expert Team). Many Institute staff members belong to other Specialist Groups within the IUCN (e.g., the Iguana Specialist Group, the Tapir Specialist Group), providing technical advice and mobilizing action for the IUCN as it works to “find pragmatic solutions to our most pressing environment and development challenges.”

Ambassador Mi Ton Teiow of the BSG was officially posted to the delegation from the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research on 17 September, 2013. From left to right: Megan Owen (ICR, BSG), Lorraine Scotson (BSG), the author, Ron Swaisgood (ICR, BSG), Barbara Durrant (ICR), Dave Garshelis (BSG), and Emre Can (BSG). Photo credit: Dr. Mei-hsiu Hwang, National Pingtung University of Science & Technology and the Taiwan Black Bear Conservation Association

Ambassador Mi Ton Teiow of the BSG was officially posted to the delegation from the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research on September 17, 2013. From left to right: Megan Owen (ICR, BSG), Lorraine Scotson (BSG), the author, Ron Swaisgood (ICR, BSG), Barbara Durrant (ICR), Dave Garshelis (BSG), and Emre Can (BSG).
Photo credit: Dr. Mei-hsiu Hwang, National Pingtung University of Science & Technology and the Taiwan Black Bear Conservation Association

Now, all of this probably sounds pretty bureaucratic, dry, and abstract, which might be part of why you can’t remember ever hearing of the BSG or the IUCN in spite of their conservation significance. However, given Mi’s colorful personality, willingness to put up with inconvenient travel without complaining, and hardiness in the face of harsh field conditions, we hope you’ll find Mi’s adventures to be enjoyable, memorable, and educational about bear conservation. Mi’s earlier travels have included a visit to the den of an American black bear, participation in technical scientific conferences, representing the BSG at the World Conservation Congress during a debate on curtailing bear farming, hiking to the highest point in South Korea, and waterskiing. Welcome to San Diego Zoo Global, Ambassador Mi Ton Teiow!

Russ Van Horn is a scientist with the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research. Read his previous post, Andean Bears and Their Favorite Food: Sapote.

145

Polar Bear IDs

Tatqiq wrestles with a snowball.

Tatqiq wrestles with a snowball.

Here are some hints on how to tell which of our beautiful polar bears you may be watching at any given time on Polar Cam:

Chinook: Everything about Chinook is round from every angle. Although the beauty mark under her left eye was removed (see post Polar Bears: Chinook and Her Beauty Mark), there is still a noticeable dark mark where her fur has not grown. When she sleeps, she is normally on her belly and rarely on her side. Chinook often sleeps just to the left of the waterfall, back by the double doors, on the beach at night, or in either mulch bed.

Kalluk: Obviously much larger than either female, Kalluk’s favorite rest spots are the middle rock shelter, back double doors, and the plunge point. So far, he is the only one who sleeps in the sandbox under the middle shelter.

Tatqiq: Long and lean with a nicely round belly, Tatqiq’s face is narrow and almost a mini-version of Kalluk’s face. Her favorite sleeping spot is the shelter by the beach. She normally sleeps on her side, but if she’s on her belly, she stretches her back legs out behind and rests her feet above her back. It looks uncomfortable, but Tatqiq loves it!

All three bears are capable of covering themselves in dirt, but Kalluk usually does just one side while both girls go for the total look. Happy polar bear watching!

JoAnne Simerson is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo. Read her previous post, Polar Bear Night.

UPDATE AUGUST 1, 2013:

SNOW DAY FOR POLAR BEARS! Help us raise the funds needed to provide our three bruins with a wonderful day of snow through our Animal Care Wish List. Offered in $10 increments, choose which bear you’d like to give “snowballs” to!