Birds

Birds

8

Condor Cam Chick Needs Name

Name the Condor ChickHatched on April 29, a small condor chick emerged into the world observed closely by animal care staff at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Adding to the more than 180 condors hatched at the Safari Park since the breeding program began in 1982, the little chick was placed with adult condors Sulu and Towich so they could raise it to adulthood. Its growth has been watched by thousands of people through a live Condor Cam placed in the nest box. Now animal care staff are asking these interested watchers to help choose a name for the young female bird.

Viewers can go online at http://bit.ly/condorname to vote for one of five suggested names. In keeping with the tradition of the condor program, the names have been selected from the Kumeyaay language. The name receiving the most votes will be used for the chick for the rest of its life. Voting closes at end of day on July 20.

“California condors are an important native species in the western United States and hold a special place not only in the ecosystem but in the culture of the people native to this area,” said Michael Mace, curator of birds at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. “By giving condors names from the Kumeyaay language, we hope to honor the role of condors in human culture throughout history.”

At more than 2 months of age, the condor chick is covered with fluffy, gray feathers and is still closely cared for by its foster parents. The young bird will continue to grow and mature over the next couple of months until its flight feathers grow in and it is ready to leave the nest. Animal care staff at the Safari Park hope that the chick will be able to take its place among the wild populations that have been released in California, Arizona and Mexico.

CONTACT: SAN DIEGO ZOO GLOBAL PUBLIC RELATIONS, 619-685-3291

4

Bird Keeper: A Busy Calendar

Blue-winged pittas love their megaworms.

Blue-winged pittas love their megaworms.

The Tiger River “string” is composed of six bird exhibits that line the Tiger Trail above and below the Malayan tiger exhibit at the San Diego Zoo. In these 6 exhibits there are around 120 birds. Normally, the birds are fairly predictable and easy to keep track of. The blue-winged pittas Pitta moluccensis come out of hiding for their tossed megaworms. The Malay great argus male Argusianus argus greets me at the door but expects his peanuts to be tossed deeper into the exhibit. His friendlier mate comes directly up to my shoe for the same thing.

Our nice-and-quiet routine is dramatically altered once their hormones kick into high gear. Starting around March and typically lasting through August or September, the breeding birds behave differently. They find new hiding places to make nests, they need more fruit or bugs added to their daily diet, and they become more territorial. The easy-to-predict birds suddenly become much more unpredictable!

I have my own calendar at my workstation that helps me visualize what is going on in these six exhibits. When I find eggs that I expect to hatch (fertile eggs that are being incubated), I look up the incubation duration for that species and figure out when those eggs should hatch. The earliest date when an egg should hatch is labeled and highlighted in pink. Any approaching pink-highlighted date lets me know I have to get ready for a potential new chick! The actual hatch is highlighted in yellow. Having hatches easily visible and clearly marked comes in handy many times. Expected fledges are noted in blue. These dates are important, because keepers need to know when a chick is expected to leave the nest, as we frequently add low perching or empty a deep pool for the young and inexperienced fliers.

A black-throated laughingthrush parent is kept busy feeding its chicks.

A black-throated laughingthrush parent is kept busy feeding its chicks.

For example, I noticed a pair of black-throated laughingthrushes Garrulax chinensis sitting on a nest earlier in the month and had figured out that April 12 was the earliest hatch date for the egg. Just before expected hatch, I ordered more bugs to go into their exhibit, as laughingthrush chicks eat a lot of insects. But there was a gap of two days before the chick did hatch. I did not go up to the nest and disturb the parents but knew there was a hatch based on the parents’ behavior—they were stacking bugs in their beaks and bringing a mouthful of mealworms, crickets, and waxworms up to their nest!

Usually 12 days after a black-throated laughingthrush hatches, the chick leaves the nest or fledges. A few days before the chick fledged, I put out some shallow water pans and emptied the pool in their exhibit. If the chick left the nest early, I wanted to make sure that it didn’t get trapped in the cold water. But that is not all! In May, I wrote down the date when the chick would be big enough to have an ID band put on its leg.

One last thought. As crowded and as colorful as this calendar can get, the six exhibits on the Tiger River string are not even the busiest breeding exhibits in the Bird Department. There are eleven other strings in the department, and many of them have more going on during this dynamic time of the year! I am humbled by the amount of knowledge my coworkers have and the amount of work they and our supervisors—who have to organize and manage all 12 strings!—put into their jobs. My hat’s off to all of them!

Mike Grue is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo. Read his previous post, Food Time!

4

Condor Chick Fostering: First Exam

Boy or girl? We'll find out soon!

Boy or girl? We’ll find out soon!

On Thursday, June 12, 2014, the California condor chick you’ve been watching on Condor Cam received its first health exam. The goal was to obtain a blood sample for our labs, administer a vaccine for West Nile virus, inject a microchip for identification, and weigh the chick.

The first step in this process is to separate the parents from the chick. Of course, the foster parents (father Towich and mother Sulu) don’t want any invaders in the nest and do their best to defend the chick and keep it safe, as all good parents do. Adjacent to the flight pen, we have a shift pen, used to safely and calmly move large or dangerous animals from one area to another. We offer all of the condors’ diet in the shift pen, so Towich and Sulu are very comfortable entering the shift pen for every meal. We shifted Towich into the pen and kept him there until after the exam. From his shift pen, he cannot see the nest area, so he was unaware that we were even in his nest, thus keeping him very calm. He ate and waited patiently until he had access back into his flight pen.

Sulu was not shifted but instead was able to see us go into her nest. We posted one keeper in the nest entryway to keep Sulu out, while another keeper entered the nest and covered the little chick with a towel. This is the first time that the 45-day-old chick had ever seen a person and was understandably nervous and defensive, hissing and lunging at the intruder. Once under the cover of the towel, the chick could not see and calmed down. It was then brought into the adjoining vestibule where our veterinarian staff was waiting.

First, the veterinarian obtained a blood sample from the chick’s leg. This sample was sent to the lab to make sure that the chick is healthy. Also, our geneticists can determine if it is male or female from this sample. Next, a vaccine for West Nile virus was administered and a microchip was injected under the chick’s skin. The veterinarian did a quick health assessment, checking the chick’s eyes, nares (nostrils), beak, feet, legs, wings, and abdomen. Lastly, we weighed the chick to make sure it was growing on schedule.

While the exam took place, a third keeper was able to enter the nest to clean the camera domes and make sure there were no hazards in the nest cavity. The whole exam, from capture to release, took about 10 minutes.

Once the exam was over, the chick was returned to the nest and Sulu was allowed to approach and check on her baby. The chick was rightfully disturbed by this process, despite our best intentions to minimize stress. Although we feel bad that the chick was so nervous, it is actually good that it was not comfortable in our presence. We have to keep in mind that we don’t want the young condor to become accustomed to or feel reassured by humans; we want it to be a wild condor, uninterested and wary of humans, so that it may someday fly free in California, Arizona, or Mexico. Condors that show an affinity for humans seldom survive in the wild.

For several minutes, the chick showed a defensive posture, hissing at everything it saw, even its mother. Sulu slowly approached her chick and calmly preened it, eventually soothing it. That is the reason we shifted only one parent; we wanted the other parent present to calm the chick after the exam. After only about two minutes, the chick was showing proper begging behavior, resulting in a feeding session from Sulu. With everyone appearing calmer, Towich was let out of his shift pen. About five minutes after that, he approached the nest to peek in on the chick and to perch in the adjoining roost area.

So far, the health exam looks to have been successful. Hopefully, the blood work will show that the chick is healthy. The veterinarian’s initial inspection revealed that the chick’s eyes and nares were clear, the feet, legs, and wings were solid, and its vitality was very strong. The chick weighed 6.8 pounds (3.10 kilograms) and was about the size of a bowling ball. We hope to receive the sex results from the Genetics Lab soon. When we do, we’ll let you know if the chick is a male or a female.

Ron Webb is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Read his previous post, Condor Chick Fostering: 30 to 45 Days.

3

Condor Chick Fostering: 30 to 45 Days

The growing chick has lots of feathers to play with.

The growing chick has lots of feathers to play with.

At a little over 1 month of age, our California condor chick should weigh around 4.5 pounds (2 kilograms) (see previous post, Condor Chick Fostering: 1 Week to 1 Month). The foster parents, Towich and Sulu, have started leaving the chick alone overnight, sleeping near the nest. If the weather is still cool or it’s raining, the parents may brood overnight until the weather improves. Even though the parents are increasing their time away from the chick, they remain VERY vigilant and protective of their nest and, especially, their chick. Some field biologists have even seen wild condor parents chasing black bears away from the nest area!

Up until now, the chick has been scooting around the nest on its tarsal joints—we call it the tarsal crawl. It’s not uncommon, at this age, to see the chick standing all the way up on its feet, teetering around the nest, holding its wings out for balance. As its legs get sturdier, the chick may even approach the parent, begging for food. The wing-begging behavior we’ve been seeing gets more pronounced: lots of wing-flapping, head-bobbing, and trying to position itself in front of the parent.

It is possible that the parents, who are offering larger quantities of food per feeding session, might be providing a small amount of fur/hair in the chick’s diet. (Part of the adults’ diet includes mammals, like rats and rabbits.) Condors can digest just about every part of the animals they eat, except for fur. This fur accumulates in the digestive tract and is eventually regurgitated as waste. We refer to this as casting. A condor’s cast is composed of predominantly fur, whereas a cast from an owl has fur and bones; owls can’t digest bones, but condors can. We have seen condor chicks cast hair pellets as young as three weeks of age. When the chick casts, it throws its head forward several times, mouth open, until the pellet is ejected from its mouth. It can look like the chick is in trouble, but it is perfectly normal, and good for the chick.

At 45 days of age, or around June 12, the chick will get its first health exam. We will obtain a blood sample for the lab to make sure it is healthy and to determine if the chick is male or female. Also, during the exam, we will weigh the chick—it should weigh between 7.7 and 8.8 pounds (3.5 and 4 kilograms)—and inject a transponder chip as a form of identification. It’s the same kind of chip you can get for your dog or cat. Most importantly, this exam allows us to administer a vaccine for West Nile virus, a disease that originated in Africa and was accidently introduced to North America by humans. North American wildlife, including condors, usually doesn’t have a natural immune response to West Nile virus, so we are trying to give the chicks as much of a head start as we can.

This exam will be the first time that the chick will see humans, so it will naturally be disturbing for it. We try to be quick (9 to 10 minutes) to minimize the disturbance. Additionally, we will keep the chick covered with a towel to reduce its exposure to humans and to provide it a bit of security. Towich and Sulu are usually away from the nest when we perform the procedure, to keep them as calm as possible as well. We don’t want the chick to become accustomed to or feel reassured by our presence; we want it to be a wild condor, uninterested and wary of humans, so that it may someday fly free in California, Arizona, or Mexico.

The chick will look very large at this age compared to how big it was at hatch, but remember that it is still less than half of its adult weight. There is much more growth and fun to come on Condor Cam!

Ron Webb is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park.

3

Food Time!

The great argus pheasants share their aviary with a variety of birds, each with its own dietary needs.

The great argus pheasants share their aviary with a variety of birds, each with its own dietary needs.

It should come as no surprise to hear that the most interesting, and dynamic, part of the day in any bird exhibit is usually feeding time. Even though our birds have constant access to a nutritious and balanced diet, a keeper entering the exhibit with new food pans means there are usually some choice goodies that any fish-eating stork, mealworm-devouring woodpecker, or grape-gnawing fruit-dove can’t wait to get a hold of. While the scope of a keeper’s entire morning feeding routine may be too overwhelming to cover in one short blog, we can take a look at how exciting feeding time is in one particular bird exhibit at the San Diego Zoo.

The Malay great argus exhibit (just next to the lower tiger viewing glass) is home to a number of colorful characters. At any given moment you may witness the stunning fairy bluebird Irena puella singing his tune while making fast, powerful darts from perch to perch, the mischievous blue-winged sivas Minla cyanouroptera flitting from leaf to leaf, the hooded pittas Pitta sordida hopping in and out of the ground cover on spring-loaded legs. And in the background you may hear the black-throated laughingthrushes Garrulax chinensis and Chinese hwameis Leucodioptron canorum calling back and forth to their mates.

As vibrant and lively as this exhibit is throughout most of the day, things really start to get exciting when the birds hear a keeper approach. Their first clue that it is feeding time is probably when they hear the lock being unlatched. By the time I enter the exhibit, the birds have taken their stations and are ready for their breakfast.

Blue-winged sivas are the smallest birds in the aviary and get fed first.

Blue-winged sivas are the smallest birds in the aviary and get fed first.

When I first enter the exhibit, I am frequently surrounded on three sides with expectant birds. The first to get fed are usually the smallest birds in the exhibit: the blue-winged sivas. These little guys are usually embedded in the nearest foliage, chirping away. They can be hard to find, but when they see me looking for them, they pop their heads out of the foliage and fly out to catch their tossed mealworm. When they both have their breakfast treat, they retire to an upper corner of the exhibit to enjoy their grubs together. Two down, fourteen to go!

The Malay great argus Argusianus argus are usually next. I toss a few peanuts deep into the exhibit. As the male sprints away to hunt down his peanuts, I drop a couple at my feet for the female and her chick to enjoy.

By this time, the male white-rumped shama Copsychus malabaricus is growing impatient, and he is perched about 3 feet in front of my chest, staring straight at me. I toss a few waxworms (moth larvae that look like large maggots—not as gross as it sounds!) into the crook of the tree behind him. The voracious male usually inhales all the insects within reach. Though if he has chicks he is feeding, the male stacks as many bugs into his tweezer-like bill as he can before flying off to care for his chicks.

If I have timed the feeding right, the argus mom and baby have just finished their peanuts and are moseying over to their morning sun bath when the pittas hop over to my feet and declare they want their food—now! A reclusive species notorious for their solitary habits, pittas can fight over their food if they think their mate unfairly stole their worm. By tossing one redworm to my left and one to my right, the pittas about-face and hop to opposite ends of the exhibit, where they can enjoy their treat all by themselves.

After the fairy bluebird catches his third bug in mid-air, and the female shama has darted out from her ground cover to snag a forgotten cricket, the excited mob of birds thins to a mere congenial gathering. This is when the patient laughingthrushes and humble hwameis emerge to land on nearby perches. I toss a few bugs into the leaf litter and let them hop down to kick up their own food. As I finish setting out the morning food pans, I usually leave the exhibit to the pleasant, rhythmic sound of the laughingthrushes and hwameis kicking leaves, tossing twigs, and digging in the dirt in their search for that last, elusive grub.

Mike Grue is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo. Read his previous post, His and Her Massages: Collared Lories.

2

Condor Chick Fostering: 1 Week to 1 Month

The condor chick is staying cool today!

The condor chick is staying cool today!

At two to three weeks of age, the real fun of condor chick-viewing begins! (See previous post, Condor Chick Fostering: Week 1) Our Condor Cam chick is getting bigger, weighing between 17 and 42 ounces (500 and 1,200 grams), and can often be seen poking its head out from under a parent’s wings. Towich and Sulu might be spending less time sitting on their foster chick, weather permitting, leaving it unattended for longer periods of time, possibly 30 minutes or so. Never fear! They are nearby, often just out of the camera’s view, just a few feet away.

It is usually easier to observe feeding behavior at this age, as well. Sulu or Towich stand a little to the side of the chick now, so you may catch a glimpse of food actually being transferred from parent to chick. The chick’s crop may be visible as a bald patch of skin when it’s full. It is between the size of a golf ball and a tennis ball. You will also witness a very common behavior called wing-begging; the chick is begging for food, flapping one or both of its stubby little wings and bobbing its head excitedly. This behavior can persist until after the chick fledges, or leaves its nest, at four to five months.

The chick hatched wearing a fluffy coat of white down feathers. The main function of down is insulation; it can either keep a bird cool or warm, whatever its body needs. At this stage, the chick’s white down is starting to transition to gray. Sometimes this can make the chick look dirty or scruffy, but it is still as healthy as it ever has been. It and the parents are frequently grooming the feathers to make sure they are working the way they should be. These dark feathers also help the chick blend in with the substrate and the nest cave walls, since Towich and Sulu are not covering the chick as much as they were.

You may have noted that the chick looks like it has scabs on its head/neck or has wounds on its body, matting its down feathers. This is actually regurgitated food stuck to its face or body. Feeding can be quite exciting for the chick, and some food doesn’t always end up in its mouth! The chick obviously can’t take a bath at this age, but the food will dries up, gets crusty, and flakes off, a major benefit of having a bald head! Anyone who has seen the adult condors eat on exhibit at Condor Ridge at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park or Elephant Odyssey at the San Diego Zoo can attest to the condors’ ability to keep clean after a messy meal. Also, the presence of flies in the nest is nothing to worry about. Keep in mind that condors are carnivores, feed their chicks via regurgitation, and nest in cavities (caves, crevices, etc.) that are often sheltered from the wind. All of these components add up to a very comfortable environment for flies as well as condors. Yet condors have excellent immune systems and are only mildly annoyed by the flies!

As of this writing, our Condor Cam chick is a little over two weeks old. At three weeks of age, it can start to thermo-regulate, or control its own body temperature. This is when its devoted foster parents can start leaving the chick on its own during the day. Depending on the ambient temperature, the chick may be seen shivering or panting in an effort to warm or cool itself. Also, on warm days, the chick may inflate the air sacs in its chin and neck to cool down. Air sac inflation can also occur after a particularly filling meal. Often, Sulu or Towich may spend time in the nest with the chick, but they may not necessarily sit on the chick.

The chick is more mobile, scooting around the nest on its haunches, or tarsal joints. We refer to this as a tarsal crawl. It’s not quite standing up on its feet, but it can move about, following the parents and investigating different parts of the nest. You may see the chick start to gather items (feather, scraps of old food) from around the nest and move them to one corner. The chick likes to sit or sleep on this pile and play with the different items. These feathers and old food scraps are often brought to the nest by the parents. Birds replace their feathers molting, similar to when mammals shed their hair/fur. We don’t know if the parents are bringing these items to the nest specifically for the chick or if it’s just happenstance, but the chick loves to investigate and play with them!

As the parents start leaving the chick alone for longer periods of time, it will be easier to watch the chick when it sleeps. Just like all growing youngsters, condor chicks sleep A LOT. With longer legs and gawky bodies, they often are sprawled out, wings askew, in odd positions when they sleep. Do not worry! The chick is perfectly fine.

At approximately 1 month of age, the chick should weigh around 4 pounds (1.8 kilograms). The parents may start leaving the chick alone overnight, sleeping near the nest. If the weather turns cool or it’s raining, the parents may continue to brood overnight. Even though the parents are increasing their time away from the chick, they remain VERY vigilant and protective of their nest and, especially, their chick.

Happy viewing, and thanks so much for your support!

Ron Webb is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park.

1

Condor Chick Fostering: Week 1

Towich dutifully sits tight.

Towich dutifully sits tight.

The San Diego Zoo Safari Park’s newest California condor chick hatched on April 29, 2014, weighing around 6 ounces or 180 grams (see post Fostering Condor Chicks). The hatching process can be grueling, so afterward, the chick usually rests a lot and is brooded—or sat on—by the parents. We often call this sitting tight. The parents are providing protection and warmth, especially while the newly hatched chick is drying off. With the chick being weak and wobbly, it often is hard to feed, but that is okay. The chick is getting nutrients from the yolk sac that it absorbed into its belly just before hatching.

After about a day, the chick can hold its head steady, and the parents then start providing food. They eat food that we offer out in the flight pen and then bring it to the chick in their crop (a bulge in their esophagus where they can store up to 3 pounds of food). The food is regurgitated for the chick, providing a warm and nutritious meal. Mmmmmmm! The diet we provide varies, depending on the day, but it can include rabbits, rats, trout, beef spleen, and ground meat. While the chick is very young, it is often difficult to witness a feeding on Condor Cam, since the parents are standing directly above the chick, blocking the camera’s view. If you see the parents slightly bobbing their heads while standing over the chick, feeding is occurring. Feeding sessions are fairly short for small chicks, since their crops are only about the size of a lima bean.

Condor Cam zoomed in on the doting father this morning.

Condor Cam zoomed in on the doting father this morning.

Both the male and female California condor provide care for the chick. This drive is very strong, and it’s not uncommon to see the parents vying for time with the chick, especially immediately after hatching. This happens in the form of leaning into each other, pushing one’s way onto the chick; scooping the chick from one parent to the other; or nipping at neck skin or tugging at feathers to get the other parent to move. Usually, one parent acts more dominantly and controls the interactions a little more than the other parent. This time, father Towich took this dominant role. Other years, we’ve seen Sulu take this role. We interpret this periodic shift in dominance, and the other bird’s acceptance of this shift, as a very good trait in a condor pair. As time passes after hatch, they settle into a routine, and the nest exchanges become much calmer.

Sometimes Condor Cam viewers are concerned about the number of times that the chick gets stepped on by the parents. In many species, ranging from hummingbirds to elephants, babies get slightly squished by the parents. Usually, it’s just a minor misstep, and the baby lets the parent know with a brief vocalization. Condors are no different or no more fragile. They are very hearty little chicks!

As young as 4 days of age, we have seen chicks sifting through the sand in the nest, picking up items on their own. We’ve even seen chicks swallowing small pieces of their eggshell for dietary calcium.

At the end of the condor chick’s first week of life, it weighs around 10.5 ounces (300 grams). It is getting much stronger but is not venturing around the nest very much yet. Coordination is improving, and we can witness social interactions with the parents: nibbling, preening, and nuzzling. Every once in a while, you may see the chick quivering, almost like it has the hiccups. It is actually vocalizing. Condors don’t have a true voice box or syrinx like other birds, but they can make crude, primitive vocalizations. Adults may grunt, wheeze, or hiss. Chicks can make a high-pitched, scraping squawk, usually when begging or when out from under the parents for too long.

The next few weeks of development are very exciting, not just for the condor family but for any of us watching on the Condor Cam. Stay tuned!

Ron Webb is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park.

3

Fostering Condor Chicks

Towich carefully keeps his new chick warm underneath him.

Towich carefully keeps his new chick warm underneath him.

Sometimes things go exactly as you plan. Sometimes Fate throws you a big curveball, forcing you to change that plan. As our Condor Cam viewers know, the egg that was going to hatch on Condor Cam this year under our experienced parents, Sisquoc and Shatash, died unexpectedly at the end of its incubation period on March 16 (see Condor Egg Loss). As a result, we moved the Condor Cam to a different nest in our Condor Breeding Facility at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park so that you could watch another pair, Towich and Sulu, hatch and rear a chick.

The male is Towich (pronounced TOH-witch) and the female is Sulu (SOO-loo). Towich is wearing yellow wing tags, numbered 35. Sulu is not wearing any tags. Towich hatched at the Los Angeles Zoo, one of our valuable partners in the California Condor Recovery Program, in 1996. He was released to the wild in Southern California in 1997 but was returned to captivity when he started showing interest in humans. More than likely, he was fed by people when he was young, causing him to lose his wariness of them. He is no longer suitable as a release bird. Towich’s story serves as an essential reminder that when viewing condors in the wild (or any wildlife, for that matter), it is of the utmost importance that we do not feed them or approach them too closely. Getting that extreme close-up picture or having the thrill of feeding a wild animal is not worth having the condor removed from the wild.

Sulu hatched at the Safari Park in 1990, and she has lived here with us her whole life. Towich is her second mate. She was separated from her first mate in 2000, when it was determined that she and Towich were a better genetic pairing. The pairing process in a breeding program can sound a bit clinical, especially in a species such as the California condor, whose population dropped to only 22 birds in 1982, but we have to be very careful who gets paired with whom in order to maintain as much genetic diversity as possible. Despite the lack of romance in being paired together, Towich and Sulu have developed into an awesome couple. They seldom squabble over food; they often perch near each other in the flight pen; they have excellent nest exchanges when incubating eggs or brooding chicks; and they seem to like to sit or lay down together, along with their chick, in the nest box or the roost.

The egg that Towich and Sulu produced this year was expected to hatch here at the Safari Park sometime around mid-April, but plans change. It was determined that their egg would be sent to the Los Angeles Zoo, along with another of our eggs, and that we would receive two Los Angeles Zoo eggs to hatch here. The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, which oversees the California Condor Recovery Program, analyzed the free-flying condor population and decided that the two eggs produced at the Safari Park would be good candidates to eventually release in California and that the two Los Angeles Zoo eggs would be better to release at the site in Baja California, Mexico. We were asked to raise the two chicks destined for Mexico, hence the exchange with the Los Angeles Zoo.

Sometimes it can get confusing trying to plan (or explain!) egg exchanges, but it’s all to ensure that we are maximizing genetic diversity among the California condor population, not just in the breeding facilities but at the release sites as well. We received good news from the Los Angeles condor keepers that Towich and Sulu’s egg successfully hatched on April 19, 2014!

Of the two eggs that we received from the Los Angeles Zoo, one hatched on April 12 under two birds familiar to Condor Cam viewers: Sisquoc and Shatash. After their original egg failed to hatch, we kept them sitting on their fake egg (a dummy egg) to keep them in breeding mode, just in case another egg needed to be hatched. Normally, condors incubate their egg for about 56 days until it hatches. If it does not hatch for any reason, they will sit for a little while longer before abandoning the egg. Sisquoc and Shatash were very attentive and sat for a whopping 80 days until their foster egg hatched! The chick is doing very well and is growing quickly, thanks to Sisquoc and Shatash’s devotion.

The second Los Angeles egg was fostered to Towich and Sulu. We were hoping that it would hatch live on Condor Cam, but to follow this year’s theme, plans changed. The embryo in this egg wasn’t positioned quite right in the shell, making hatching on its own very unlikely. We cut a hole in the shell, allowing the chick to breathe more easily. When it looked strong enough, we exchanged the dummy egg in Towich and Sulu’s nest with this newly pipped egg. They bonded immediately to the egg, tending to it faithfully. The next day, on April 29, while they were eating in the pen, we sneaked into the nest to break off some of the shell, simulating a natural hatch. After we were able to evaluate the chick’s health, we carefully placed it back in the empty shell and set it back in the nest. Within 30 minutes, Towich and Sulu removed the chick from the shell and started taking care of it. So far, the chick looks great and can now be seen on Condor Cam!

Fostering is a common technique used in avian breeding. The parents usually accept the new egg and hatch it and raise the chick as if it was their own. This process is very valuable in the California Condor Recovery Program, increasing the opportunities to release parent-reared birds to the wild. Also, fostering allows pairs that lose their eggs, for any reason, to successfully raise a chick together. Repeated success in a nest strengthens the bond between the two parents. Too many failures often lead to the pair squabbling and ultimately dissolving their bond.

Have fun watching Towich and Sulu raise their foster chick this season. They are great parents and should provide you with lots of fun viewing opportunities! We will offer blog updates explaining the chick’s growth process and will try to answer any questions you may have.

Ron Webb is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park.

1

His and Her Massages: Collared Lories

Collared lories

Collared lories engage in allopreening.

A bird has many good reasons to make sure its feathers are in top condition. If the feathers become dirty, oily, shabby, or broken, the bird may have trouble keeping warm, attracting a mate, or even flying! This is why it is not uncommon to see a bird spend a good portion of its day grooming—or preening—itself. When birds preen each other, it is known as allopreening. Many species do not allopreen. They may sing for hours to woo a potential mate, perform stunning visual displays to communicate their intentions, or may share their food to prove what a good mate they would make. But when it comes to taking care of the feathers of their friends or mates, forget about it!

However, there is group of birds that is very well known for being faithful allopreeners. I still stop and watch anytime I see a pair of birds delicately grooming the feathers around their mate’s eyes or ears (birds have ear holes exactly where you would expect to find them—they are just well covered by feathers). Frequently, the bird receiving the massage has its eyes closed and head cocked to the side. I can’t imagine the bird enjoys it any less than we humans!

Oh, that feels good!

Oh, that feels good!

This month I saw a pair of collared lorries Phigys solitarius start out preening in an adorable—and common—way. The male was being groomed and had his eyes closed, letting the female preen all around the side of his face. While watching the pair, I saw that the moment the female stopped preening the male, he immediately started to preen her…for a few seconds. He stopped, she started…for a few seconds. She stopped, and he started. They went back and forth like this every few moments for a couple of minutes. After being enthralled by this display, I realized that this was my blog subject for the month! Luckily for me, the birds continued their display long enough for me to get some good video.

I was standing on the public walkway when I saw these two lovebirds, so the video below was taken looking through the visitor viewing just across the sidewalk from the fishing cat along the Tiger Trail at the Zoo. The video is not as unobstructed as I usually try to share with you, but I think it is cool that you don’t need to be a zookeeper to witness this adorable display of affection…just some good timing!



Mike Grue is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo. Read his previous post, A New “Tree” for Woodpeckers.

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Alala Chicks: Time to Move Out of Mom and Dad’s House!

Three alala chicks share a perch soon after being moved into a new aviary together.

Three alala chicks share a perch soon after being moved into a new aviary together.

Last year was momentous at the Keauhou Bird Conservation Center in Hawaii. For the first time in over 20 years, alala (Hawaiian crows) successfully hatched and reared their own chicks in managed care, completely unassisted! Two chicks (a male and female) were raised by their mom, Po Mahina. To learn about her parent-rearing journey, read Alala: Does Mother Know Best? Another male chick was raised by a caring alala mom named Lolii. This gave us a total of three parent-reared chicks!

Before the species went extinct in the wild in 2002, young alala chicks were known to live with their parents until the following breeding season. Today I am happy to report that these three parent-reared chicks are doing fantastic. However, they just went through an experience that many animal species (humans included!) go through: the time to stretch your wings and move out of mom and dad’s house!

We wanted to move the chicks gradually and as stress-free as possible, so a few weeks ago we shifted them to the chamber next door to their parents. This way the chicks could still see, hear, and interact with their parents. Both the chicks and their parents hardly seemed bothered by this change! Then it was time for the big move. All of our alala are conditioned to come down to a hack box (a small room with sliding hatch doors) every day for their normal food pan. On the morning of the big move, the chicks were shut into their hack box, then quickly netted and placed into animal carriers. The chicks were then taken to their new home in a separate aviary, just a short car ride down the road. Once there, all three chicks were released into their new aviary at the same time.

Since Lolii’s chick was an only child, this was the first time for him to meet other chicks. We worried that he might have a harder time adjusting to living with other chicks, because getting used to new roommates takes some adjustment, whether you are bird or human! We also worried that Po Mahina’s chicks might gang up and bully Lolii’s chick, so we closely observed their interactions following the release. Our worry was needless, because everyone quickly worked out their differences, and at the end of the day, all three chicks were sitting together on the same perch!

What’s next for these three youngsters? For now, they will probably stay together for a couple of years until they become mature alala, around three years of age. During that time, their blue eyes will slowly start to transition to dark brown. Their bright pink gapes (corners of the mouth) will turn black like an adult’s. Instead of their boisterous begging vocalizations, they will soon sound like adults and call out to each other with an amazing repertoire of calls and songs.

What about those super moms? Po Mahina and Lolii’s breeding and nesting instincts are starting to kick back into gear. Now it’s time to turn on our alala video cameras so we can watch the parent-rearing process start all over again!

Amy Kuhar is a research associate at the Keauhou Bird Conservation Center in Hawaii. Read her previous post, Nene Nest Fest 2014!