Animals and Plants

Animals and Plants

2

Alala Chicks: Time to Move Out of Mom and Dad’s House!

Three alala chicks share a perch soon after being moved into a new aviary together.

Three alala chicks share a perch soon after being moved into a new aviary together.

Last year was momentous at the Keauhou Bird Conservation Center in Hawaii. For the first time in over 20 years, alala (Hawaiian crows) successfully hatched and reared their own chicks in managed care, completely unassisted! Two chicks (a male and female) were raised by their mom, Po Mahina. To learn about her parent-rearing journey, read Alala: Does Mother Know Best? Another male chick was raised by a caring alala mom named Lolii. This gave us a total of three parent-reared chicks!

Before the species went extinct in the wild in 2002, young alala chicks were known to live with their parents until the following breeding season. Today I am happy to report that these three parent-reared chicks are doing fantastic. However, they just went through an experience that many animal species (humans included!) go through: the time to stretch your wings and move out of mom and dad’s house!

We wanted to move the chicks gradually and as stress-free as possible, so a few weeks ago we shifted them to the chamber next door to their parents. This way the chicks could still see, hear, and interact with their parents. Both the chicks and their parents hardly seemed bothered by this change! Then it was time for the big move. All of our alala are conditioned to come down to a hack box (a small room with sliding hatch doors) every day for their normal food pan. On the morning of the big move, the chicks were shut into their hack box, then quickly netted and placed into animal carriers. The chicks were then taken to their new home in a separate aviary, just a short car ride down the road. Once there, all three chicks were released into their new aviary at the same time.

Since Lolii’s chick was an only child, this was the first time for him to meet other chicks. We worried that he might have a harder time adjusting to living with other chicks, because getting used to new roommates takes some adjustment, whether you are bird or human! We also worried that Po Mahina’s chicks might gang up and bully Lolii’s chick, so we closely observed their interactions following the release. Our worry was needless, because everyone quickly worked out their differences, and at the end of the day, all three chicks were sitting together on the same perch!

What’s next for these three youngsters? For now, they will probably stay together for a couple of years until they become mature alala, around three years of age. During that time, their blue eyes will slowly start to transition to dark brown. Their bright pink gapes (corners of the mouth) will turn black like an adult’s. Instead of their boisterous begging vocalizations, they will soon sound like adults and call out to each other with an amazing repertoire of calls and songs.

What about those super moms? Po Mahina and Lolii’s breeding and nesting instincts are starting to kick back into gear. Now it’s time to turn on our alala video cameras so we can watch the parent-rearing process start all over again!

Amy Kuhar is a research associate at the Keauhou Bird Conservation Center in Hawaii. Read her previous post, Nene Nest Fest 2014!

7

Baby Gorilla at Home

Imani cradles her infant while on exhibit at the Safari Park.

Imani cradles her infant while on exhibit at the Safari Park.

These past five weeks have been some of the most hectic and rewarding weeks that my fellow keepers and I have experienced on the job! Born via C-section and needing treatment for pneumonia and a collapsed lung, gorilla Imani’s baby girl had a bit of a rough start to life (see video below). Thanks to the dedicated team of people working around the clock, and her own fighting spirit, she eventually pulled through. Since being introduced to her mom and other gorilla troop members at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, life has been smooth sailing.

Imani has, so far, been the picture of an ideal mother. During the first couple of days of their introduction, Imani experimented with different ways of holding her new baby girl. While raising her “adopted” son Frank, he would often ride on Imani’s back. Gorilla moms usually carry their kids on their back until they reach about three months old. Imani quickly learned that this little newborn would much rather be held close to the chest and would demonstrate the strength of her rehabilitated lungs by crying loudly if Mom tried anything else! Look for Imani out on exhibit carrying the baby, usually in her right arm, while foraging. Having an infant in her arms has not slowed Imani down or diminished her appetite for kale, romaine, sunflower seeds, a tasty piece of acacia browse, you name it!

After Mom has had her fill, one of Imani’s favorite spots to sit down and nurse her baby is the heated pad in the giant root ball at the base of the fallen tree-climbing structure. You can often see Imani resting here at different times throughout the day, baby cradled in her arms. Watch for Imani holding the baby’s hand in her own or grooming her while she nurses. Frank, now 5½ years old, is usually not too far away, and the other gorillas frequently take turns passing by for a peek as they carry on with their own activities.

At the end of the day, the troop returns to the bedroom area for the night. After dinner, Imani usually makes a nest of hay large enough for her, her baby, and five-year-old big brother Frank to sleep together. Come to the Safari Park and watch with us as this little girl grows up!

Jami Pawlowski is a keeper at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park.

22

“Go potty,” Xiao Liwu

What a clever panda boy we have!

What a clever panda boy we have!

Many of you have wondered how we trained the San Diego Zoo’s panda youngster, Xiao Liwu, to provide a urine sample upon request. Teaching a bear to urinate on command takes a lot of patience and observation of the bear and his or her habits. We used a method called capturing a behavior.

We noticed that when “Mr. Wu” shifts off exhibit and goes into the tunnel, which has a concrete floor, he would, fairly regularly, go to the bathroom before he went into his bedroom. Urine is a very important tool for information about any animal to determine health or hormone levels. So, we started keeping a water syringe and extra apples with us when we started shifting him in at night. When we “caught” him going potty, we would say “go potty” and show him the syringe. When he was done, we would offer him his verbal cue, “Good,” and an apple reward.

After about two weeks of this, he started to go potty when we asked him to. We then use the syringe to collect his urine sample off the concrete floor, which is cleaned every day and night. No cup or pan needed!

Jennifer Becerra is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo. Read her previous post, Yun Zi Travels to China, Part 2.

8

Orangutans: Why the Burlap?

A young Cinta enjoyed burlap, too!

A young Cinta enjoyed burlap, too!

Satu sits slightly down with a piece of burlap over his head; Indah lies in a hammock completely covered by burlap, and Karen has a burlap bag clutched in her foot as she does somersaults in front of the glass. What’s up with the burlap? Burlap is one of the enrichment items we give the orangutans on exhibit. If you have spent anytime at the San Diego Zoo, you probably have heard of enrichment. Enrichment basically refers to anything given to the animals that will increase their activity both physically and mentally.

When animals are on exhibit, we are limited to items that are natural in appearance, and with orangutans, we are limited further to items that are “orangutan proof.” Orangutans are intelligent, strong, and creative animals. Great care has to be given so that individuals cannot hurt themselves, destroy the items, or, more likely, use the item as a tool for mischief.

In addition to the burlap, pinecones, gourds, bamboo, browse, and palm fronds are enrichment items we commonly use on exhibit. We try to give them items that will encourage natural behaviors. Orangutans are arboreal mammals from the rain forest. They use branches and large fronds to protect themselves from the rain and sun. We give them burlap, browse, and palm fronds to mimic this behavior. We put treats and smears in and on the pinecones, gourds, and bamboo to encourage foraging behaviors and tool use. We have a simulated termite mound in the exhibit, which, of course, does not contain ants or termites but different sauces. It is not so important what is in the termite mound but that they use tools to extract what they want out of it.

Tool use is a learned behavior passed from mother to offspring. We saw Indah actively teaching Cinta to use the termite mound, and it will be great to see her do the same with her newest baby, Aisha. Different groups have different tool use methods, and even individuals have a preference when it comes to extracting the enrichment. When we give bamboo cups with gelatin inside, Satu likes to use his strong jaws and teeth to just break it open, Cinta would pound it on rocks and knock out the gelatin, while Karen uses a small stick to get the good stuff.

You will also notice when you look at the exhibit that there are large, plastic items hung on ropes. While they are not natural looking, they fulfill the other requirement: they are orangutan proof. We use these as permanent enrichment items in the exhibit. In addition to the animals using them to swing and play with, we also put food items inside periodically. As a result, the orangutans check them every day. This increases their activity level, but it also mimics a natural behavior. Orangutans have a mental map of the rain forest: where the fruiting trees are located, and what is edible. They remember where they found food in the past and return to it later.

Tanya Howard is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo. Read her previous post, Orangutan Aisha at 5 Months.

69

Entertaining Panda Cub Xiao Liwu

Xiao Liwu relaxes in his off-exhibit bedroom next to his rocking "horse." See, he likes apples!

Xiao Liwu relaxes in his off-exhibit bedroom next to his rocking “horse.” See, he likes apples!

What has our panda cub been up to, now that he’s been on his own for a few weeks? Keeper Jennifer Becerra filled me in on all things “Wu,” and I’m eager to share what I learned with Xiao Liwu’s many fans!

Jennifer says Xiao Liwu, now 20 months old, is doing quite well. He is not as playful as his older siblings have been and instead has become a bamboo-eating machine. Now weighing 70.5 pounds (32 kilograms), “Mr. Wu” eats about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) of bamboo each day—a lot for a little bear! Shunning most non-bamboo food items, he is developing a taste for Fuji apple slices and applesauce. Lately, keepers have been blending steamed carrots, yams, applesauce, and banana-flavored biscuits into a mush for him. They serve the concoction in a metal pan, which you may have seen in his enclosure.

Lest you think Wu is all about food, don’t worry. He does enjoy playing in a long, plastic tray filled with ice cubes. He climbs all over a recycled plastic “rocking horse,” which is really in the shape of a whale, that is in his off-exhibit bedroom area. And you’ll be proud to know he is doing well with his training. He already urinates on command when he hears the words “go potty”! Being able to collect this vital fluid for periodic testing is part of our animal care protocol. Mr. Wu knows how to “target” or touch his nose to a target stick, and he knows to put his paws up, paws down, and to sit when asked to do so. He also enjoys his new bedding material, called excelsior hay, that is on top of the cave structure. This hay product was on his Wish List—thank you, donors!

Ice cubes feel good on a warm day!

This ice feels good on a warm day!

And then there are scents! Our pandas love to roll and anoint themselves with different odors. Their keepers found a fragrance company that provides a huge variety of choices. They all like the smell of cinnamon, but I found it interesting that each panda also has his or her favorites. For Mr. Wu, it’s wintergreen. Bai Yun enjoys those in the mint family: wintergreen, peppermint, and spearmint. Yun Zi, who is now living in China, loved honeysuckle and earthworm! And Gao Gao? He tends to lean toward more musky scents, but his all-time favorite is rubbing alcohol!

Debbie Andreen is an associate editor for San Diego Zoo Global. Read her previous post, Delightful Tasmanian Devils.

14

Orangutan Aisha at 5 Months

What fun to watch Aisha grow!

What fun to watch Aisha grow!

The past five months have gone by so fast! Little orangutan Aisha is growing by leaps and bounds. I forget how small she actually was until I see a picture of her first day outside. Indah continues to be a great mother. She seems even more relaxed with Aisha than she did with Cinta, her first offspring.

The last few weeks have seen an increase in Aisha’s activity level on exhibit. Typically, Indah is active and moving around the exhibit first thing in the morning, and by 11a.m., she finds a comfortable perch in the climbing structure and relaxes for the rest of her time on exhibit, with Aisha hanging on her. Lately, we have seen Aisha off of Mom on the climbing structure and hammocks—it’s so exciting! At first, Indah’s hand was right there, and she was very vigilant. Now, Indah will be a few feet away, sometimes with her back to Aisha, and one time Indah even left the tree and went to the ground for a few minutes! It is amazing to see Aisha on her own, so interested in her surroundings.

Mom and baby are still going inside at 1p.m. so the siamangs can go on exhibit. It will be a while before we are comfortable introducing the baby to the siamangs. Because of male siamang Unkie’s previous behavior with Cinta, we do not want to try this too early, as it could result in unnecessary stress to Indah and Aisha or possibly injury.

When inside, Indah is even more relaxed. At a very young age Indah would put Aisha down in the bedroom and let her explore. It varies greatly between individual mothers when they break that mother-child contact for the first time. Literature has the range as early as 2 months and as late as 18 months. Indah was definitely on the low end of the range! She feels very safe in her bedroom and knows that there is no threat to Aisha inside. In her bedroom, Aisha climbs up the bars and across the ropes and back again. She is very active, but sometimes she just wants to be on Mom. We have a camera system set up in the bedroom, and this has really allowed us to see behaviors between Mom and baby and to see early development that we would not have seen if we were standing there watching. Indah typically is more protective if there are people present and usually will grab Aisha and hold her until people leave the area.

Aisha still does not have any teeth, but she is tasting everything, and everything goes into her mouth. She eats lettuce and would probably eat or try to eat other foods, but Indah is not good with sharing. The majority of Aisha’s nutrition is from nursing.

I get asked a lot how much Aisha weighs. Even though Indah lets Aisha climb and move around, she would never leave Aisha and move to another area without her. We can get weights anytime on Mom and baby together.

It will be great to see Aisha grow and change in the coming months. Every day I am excited to get to work and see all the cute stuff she does. Everything she does is cute!

Tanya Howard is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo. Read her previous post, Orangutan Personalities.

31

Yun Zi Travels to China, Part 2

Dr. Beth (at right) and Jennifer pose with their flight captain.

Dr. Beth (at right) and Jennifer pose with their flight captain.

Be sure to read Yun Zi Travels to China, Part 1!

Panda Yun Zi was a natural traveler in the van all the way to the Los Angeles Airport. He sat quietly in his crate and ate bamboo all the way. When we got to the airport, he decided to take a nap while we waited to get checked by security. We had to wait a short time before Yun Zi and all of his luggage was strapped down safely onto a pallet and ready to load onto the plane. The pilots were very kind to ask what temperature and light settings would make Yun Zi most comfortable in cargo during our long flight.

The time flew by, and before I knew it, Yun Zi, Dr. Beth Bicknese, and I were boarded onto the plane. Yun Zi was nice and calm all the way onto the plane. Not me! I was super-nervous, as this was my first flight overseas and flying on a large cargo plane. We met with all five pilots and introduced them to Yun Zi. He did extremely well meeting the pilots, and they even spoke a little Chinese (Mandarin) so he could practice.

Jennifer and Dr. Beth meet Yun Zi's new keepers upon arrival.

Jennifer and Dr. Beth meet Yun Zi’s new keepers upon arrival.

Our flight departed around 9 p.m., and we were off for our 22-hour journey. The airlines and the pilots were wonderful, as we all felt like we were in first class. They understood our needs and the care we needed to provide Yun Zi on his flight. Dr. Beth and I did not get much sleep on the plane, as we were making sure Yun Zi was as comfortable as possible. It was extremely easy to access Yun Zi, as he was only behind one door, and we checked on him every three to four hours.

I will tell you he was a much better flyer than I! Every time I checked on him, he was resting and calm. He enjoyed his biscuits, bread, and honey water in first-class style. I didn’t sleep much at all, wanting to make sure he was comfortable, and I was reassured every time I checked on him that he was calm. The flight was entirely at night as we flew up the coastline to Alaska and over the Pacific Ocean and landed in Shanghai two hours early, around 6 a.m.

When we landed, we were greeted by airline security, and the pilots quickly took us through customs so we could get back to Yun Zi. It was wintertime in Shanghai, and lucky Yun Zi had his fur coat on, as it was 40 degrees Fahrenheit outside. We waited for Yun Zi to be unloaded and noticed his small welcoming party (small because we landed two hours early!). Dr. Beth and I were immediately introduced to one of his new keepers (Mr. Strong) and veterinarians (Mr. Deng). They checked on Yun Zi and offered him a fresh apple. Yun Zi was polite but decided he would rather sleep.

And off he goes to his new home!

And off he goes to his new home!

Dr. Beth and I passed along Yun Zi’s training video (we had made a video for his new keepers to show them what he knows so far) and all his information to his new keepers. Mr. Deng asked several typical questions about Yun Zi: how much he eats, how much he poops in a day, his favorite scents, and favorite toys. We talked about his training and how he likes to see people.

I know Yun Zi is in good hands with his new staff and was ready for his journey to Wolong with them. I did leave a little piece of my heart in Shanghai that day, but I know Yun Zi will do well in China.

Jennifer Becerra is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo.

3

A New “Tree” for Woodpeckers

A yellow-naped woodpecker is hard at work.

A yellow-naped woodpecker is hard at work.

Nothing beats natural behavior. Allowing birds to use their evolved traits, behaviors, and abilities usually results in a healthier bird in both mind and body. We encourage natural foraging behaviors by hiding earthworms in loose soil for the kiwis to hunt. We do bug scatters in the diving duck aviary for the ducks to dive for (it is so cool to watch!). And we try to make available various nesting material the birds would look for and use in the wild. Hummingbirds get spider webs, weavers get thorny twigs, and woodpeckers get…hmm…how do you replicate the tall, thick, dead trees most woodpeckers prefer to use in the wild? The San Diego Zoo’s Horticulture department does such a good job at keeping the trees alive and healthy that there are not many dead trees available. Not to mention that it would be difficult to actually move those trunks into the exhibit!

Enter the cork nest! The ingenious box was developed by curator Peter Shannon and his team at Albuquerque Biological Park. The nest box has plywood sheets on the top, bottom, and three sides. The fourth side is open, exposing the cork. The idea is that the cork is hard enough to provide the birds a tough substance to chip away at but is soft enough for them to still make progress. Here’s a photo essay and video of what happened…

On February 3, 2014, I used a tool to make a small indent in the hard cork on the front of the nest box and installed the box in the yellow-napped woodpecker’s Picus chlorolophus exhibit, which is just up the hill from the turtle exhibit on Tiger Trail.

#1: On February 3, 2014, I used a tool to make a small indent in the hard cork on the front of the nest box and installed the box in the yellow-napped woodpecker’s Picus chlorolophus exhibit, which is just up the hill from the turtle exhibit on Tiger Trail.

Within hours, the male was clinging to the front of the nest box and was working away at the starter hole I had made! You can see that the woodpeckers are much better at making circles than I am…how embarrassing.

Within hours, the male was clinging to the front of the nest box and was working away at the starter hole I had made! You can see that the woodpeckers are much better at making circles than I am…how embarrassing.

After congratulating myself for thinking about making the starter hole, I walked into work on February 9 to see this. Hmm, obviously I didn’t put the starter hole in the right place and the birds had come up with their own location.

After congratulating myself for thinking about making the starter hole, I walked into work on February 9 to see this. Hmm, obviously I didn’t put the starter hole in the right place and the birds had come up with their own location.

By February 16, though, the birds had come up with an even better spot!

By February 16, though, the birds had come up with an even better spot!

 A week later, the three holes look like a surprised cork ghost...

A week later, the three holes look like a surprised cork ghost…

 ...and by March 16, a scared cork ghost!

…and by March 16, a scared cork ghost!

It has been such a joy these past few weeks to see both of the woodpeckers engaging in their natural nesting behavior. At the time of this writing, the bottom hole is the most extensive cavity that reaches to the very bottom of the nest. The upper right hole is also large but does not extend or break through to the bottom hole. And the top center hole—the one I helpfully started for them—nothing. I think they just worked on it to be nice.

The video below is not the up-close-and-personal video I’ve tried to show in the past. But I think it is great in that it was taken from the guest walkway and is exactly what observant—and lucky—guests might be able to see for themselves! In the video, the woodpecker is “corkpecking” and chipping away at the material. Later in the day, I was delighted to see the female’s pointy beak emerge full of loose bits of cork. She spat the cork out, ducked back into the nest, and emerged seconds later with another mouthful of excavated cork. How cool!

Woodpecker Video

Mike Grue is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo. Read his previous post, A Trick up Her “Sleeves.”

29

Yun Zi in China

Yun Zi arrives in the quarantine area.

Yun Zi arrives in the quarantine area. Photo credit: Wolong

Life is Good in Dujiangyan

We were all sad to see giant panda Yun Zi leave the San Diego Zoo and move to China, and honestly, we all miss him! However, we were not surprised to hear reports from keeper Jennifer Becerra (see Yun Zi Travels to China) that he traveled well, and it looked like the transition to his new life in China would be very smooth.

Yun Zi explores his new digs.

Yun Zi explores his new digs. Photo credit: Wolong

The changes a panda might experience when he or she moves to a new, far-away home include some changes in diet, new voices, different smells, and, for bears heading to China, the presence of a larger population of other pandas. Experiencing these novel stimuli for the first time may be both challenging and exciting for a young panda, and given Yun Zi’s generally spirited personality, I have no doubt that this was very exciting for him!

A good place to leave a scent mark?

A good place to leave a scent mark? Photo credit: Wolong

Yun Zi is now living at the Duijiangyan Base (part of the China Conservation and Research Centre for Giant Pandas), where there are 21 pandas, including 10 adults. Reports from our colleagues indicate that he is doing very well. Now 4½ years old, Yun Zi is approaching adulthood, but he is not yet of breeding age. That said, this breeding season could provide Yun Zi with some indirect experience, as he may hear the vocal communication of courting pandas at the facility and potentially catch the scent of a panda female in estrus. In a couple of years, he may be ready to experience panda courtship firsthand, but for now, he is simply enjoying spring in the Sichuan Province.

Megan Owen is an associate director with the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research. Read her previous post, Panda News: The Good and the Bittersweet.

11

Orangutan Personalities

Janey bonds with a young Zoo guest.

Janey bonds with a young Zoo guest.

Ever wonder about the personalities of the orangutans and siamangs you watch on Ape Cam? Wonder no more! Here’s a quick guide to help you tell “who’s who.”

Janey is the oldest animal in the exhibit. At approximately 52 years old, her hair is thinning on her back and shoulders, and her toes are curled up (it is painful for her to straighten them out). You may see her crutch-walking on exhibit. She is on medications, due to her age, for pain and gut mobility. She is our only Borean orangutan, born in the wild around 1962. She remains interested in “human items” due to the fact that she was hand raised and in private hands for the first half of her life. Her favorite spots in the exhibit are at the exhibit glass and in her zen/sun spot down the hill. She gets along with everyone in the group. But do not let her old age fool you! She lets her feelings be known, and she stands her ground.

Karen was born at the Zoo on June 11, 1992, and was hand raised. She survived a widely publicized open-heart surgery in 1994. Karen is very short and round (a no-neck girl!). Her hair is shorter than Janey and Indah’s, and her eyes are yellow. She has a LOT of personality, is very stubborn and willful but remains a keeper and guest favorite. Karen likes to twirl around on the sturdy bamboo poles in the exhibit. She also likes to roll around instead of walking when out there (she will and can walk, but chooses not to!).

Indah likes to sit in the far right (east) climbing structure. She rarely comes down to the ground, and then only to get food and be at the popular man-made termite mound to grab a snack. Indah is the pretty one of the group with long, flowing hair and a large bump in the middle of her forehead. She is very slow to warm up to new people, but she likes the siamangs and shares her food with them occasionally (an unusual behavior in the primate world!). She was a very doting mother to little Aisha, born in 2013.

Satu is our lone male orangutan and is Aisha’s father. He was born on March 26, 1995. His cheek pads and dreadlocks filled out once his father, Clyde, moved to another zoo. Satu has a sweet disposition and can usually be seen slightly down the hill in a bed of pappas grass. He is quite playful and often plays with the two siamangs that share the exhibit.

Aisha is our newest orangutan, born on October 25, 2013, to mother Indah. So far, her mother is doing a great job of caring for her, and little Aisha is skilled at clinging to Mom’s chest as the pair travel up poles and across the ropes. What fun we’ll have watching her grow!

Of our two siamangs, Unkie is much leaner than Eloise and his face is more angular. Siamangs pair bond for the life of their mate, and Unkie and Ellie have been together since 1987 and can often be heard singing duets.

Unkie, born on October 19, 1983, is usually the instigator with the orangutans; he likes to steal their food, pull on their hair, and swat at them. Eloise, born on April 17, 1981, has a visible belly and a bare chest. There is a discolored line of hair down the middle of her back. She has had five offspring with Unkie. The siamangs both are very sweet, not too aggressive to people or their orangutan roommates.

Now that you know a bit more about them, I hope you’ll continue to enjoy watching all the action on Ape Cam!

Tanya Howard is a senior keeper at the San Diego Zoo. Read her previous post,