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About Author: Amy Kilshaw

Posts by Amy Kilshaw

1

Perfect Parrotbill Puppets

Click on the link to watch this parrotbill hatch.

Click on the link in the first paragraph to watch this kiwikiu (parrotbill) hatch.

The Maui Bird Conservation Center is pleased to announce the hatch of our second kiwikiu (Maui parrotbill) chick of the breeding season. The chick hatched on April 11 at 11 a.m., and I was lucky enough to see the chick hatching and took this short video clip: Kiwikiu (parrotbill) hatching.mov

The kiwikiu is an endangered, endemic Hawaiian honeycreeper only found in a small range on the eastern slopes of the Haleakala volcano on Maui. This species has been notoriously difficult to breed in captivity, but the Hawaii Endangered Bird Conservation Program has been having more luck in producing chicks in the last few years (see Raising Maui Parrotbills).

A puppet "parent" feeds the new kiwikiu.

A puppet “parent” feeds the new kiwikiu.

The kiwikiu is a very intelligent species, and we take many steps to keep the birds from imprinting onto humans. We use a hand puppet during feeds as soon as the young chick’s eyes start to open, and this year we thought it was time we “upgraded” our hand puppet.

At the Maui Bird Conservation Center’s Open House last November, I met a lovely local lady, Alyson Danford, who obviously has a real passion for the native wildlife of Hawaii. Alyson grew up on the Big Island of Hawaii but has now lived on Maui for more than 28 years. Alyson created a beautiful quilt of the kiwikiu among the native Acacia koa tree, and she donated this wonderful gift to our program during the open house. I immediately thought of Alyson about making the new hand puppet and contacted her about the project.

Alsyon stands in front of a quilt she made, inspired by the alala's hoped-for return to the wild.

Alyson stands in front of a quilt she made, inspired by the alala’s hoped-for return to the wild.

Alyson was very excited to help us even though she had never made anything like that before, and after a visit to our facility, she came up with two new hand puppets for our program! It was perfect timing when Alyson had the new puppets ready for our newly hatched chick.

We are extremely grateful to Alyson for donating her time and creativity to help us toward our mission of protecting the native birds of Hawaii. Alyson, Mahalo nui loa. Me ka aloha pumehana.

Amy Kilshaw is a research associate at the San Diego Zoo’s Maui Bird Conservation Center. Read her previous post, Nene Come Home.

4

Nene Come Home

The wild nene family strolls the grounds of the MBCC.

The wild nene family strolls the grounds of the MBCC.

Over the last 17 years, 442 nene (Hawaiian goose) have been released throughout the Hawaiian Islands through the Hawaii Endangered Bird Conservation Program. Our nene breeding program played a vital part in the conservation success for a species whose population was down to only 40 birds in the 1940s. With current wild population estimates around at 2,500 birds split between the islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii, the breeding program was halted in 2011.

For me, the only downside of this success is no longer raising the gorgeous nene goslings, which were a highlight of working at the Maui Bird Conservation Center (MBCC). So it was a great delight when a pair of familiar nene came back to establish a nest site this January on our facility’s grounds. The male and female hatched here in 2004 and 2005 respectively and were both released into the wild here on Maui.

One can only imagine where and when this couple “fell in love,” but this is not their first nesting attempt at MBCC. The pair attempted a nest last year and laid two eggs, but one egg disappeared, and the pair abandoned the nest after the second egg was mysteriously moved quite a distance away. This season, the pair chose a more protected location and laid three eggs in a nest surrounded by the calls of the `alala and kiwikiu (Maui parrotbill). After 30 long days of anticipation, the pair successfully hatched out three perfect goslings!

For the next six days, the pair did a wonderful job keeping the goslings safe and warm, and we enjoyed being hissed away by the protective parents. But, hoping to minimize habituation to humans, we asked personnel from the State of Hawaii to translocate the family to a safe haven in a pre-release pen at the Piiholo Ranch where the goslings can grow, flourish, and eventually take flight over Maui.

We are thankful for the nene coming back to nest, and we hope to see them again next year!

Amy Kilshaw is a research associate at the San Diego Zoo’s Maui Bird Conservation Center. Read her previous post, Full House at Maui Bird Conservation Center.

1

Full House at Maui Bird Conservation Center

Our educational displays were all updated for our Open House event.

Our educational displays were all updated for our Open House event.

The Maui Bird Conservation Center (MBCC) hosted its Annual Open House Events in November. We house some of Hawaii’s most threatened bird species: the alala (Hawaiian crow), kiwikiu (Maui parrotbill), puaiohi (small Kauai thrush), and nene (Hawaiian goose). Our mission is to aid the recovery of Hawaiian ecosystems by preventing the extinction and promoting the recovery of Hawaii’s most threatened native birds.

As our focus is on breeding these critically endangered species, we give the birds as much privacy and seclusion as possible, and this, unfortunately, limits the amount of public outreach we can do. But once a year we get to open our doors and show Maui and its visitors a glimpse of these incredible birds and ways they can help in their conservation.

In preparation for the event, we worked very hard to update all our educational material with lots of new presentations and posters for visitors to enjoy. In addition to offering hour-long tours featuring the birds and our facility, we created a new interactive Keiki Room, with crafts and fun educational information geared toward children, and there was a silent auction with lots of fantastic items to bid on over the two days.

Robin mans the silent auction table at our Open House.

Robin mans the silent auction table at our Open House.

This year we had a record number of visitors, with almost 200 people coming through our doors! Robin Keith, senior research coordinator for San Diego Zoo Global’s Conservation Education Division, helped plan and implement this successful event with us. We advertised on a larger scale this year so we could reach more people across Maui, and the publicity proved so popular we had to add additional tours! We even had a visitor from Honolulu fly in for the day just for the event.

MBCC is one of two facilities operated by the Hawaii Endangered Bird Conservation Program, a field conservation program of the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, in partnership with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and State of Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife. This year’s Open House was a great success, and we really enjoyed sharing the work we do with so many guests. We are already looking forward to opening our doors next year! We are especially grateful to all the supporters who donated items for our silent Auction.

Mahalo (thank you) to our Maui ohana (family)!

Amy Kilshaw is a research associate at the Maui Bird Conservation Center. Read her previous post, Raising Maui Parrotbills.

2

Raising Maui Parrotbills

A newly hatched Maui parrotbill

The Hawaii Endangered Bird Conservation Program is pleased to announce our current success in raising the critically endangered Maui parrotbill (Hawaiian name: kiwikiu). This year, two chicks have hatched at the Maui Bird Conservation Center (MBCC), and one chick hatched at the Keauhou Bird Conservation Center (KBCC) on the Big Island. Our previous chick was raised in 2009, so adding three birds to the managed-care population over the course of one month is fantastic!

A newly hatched Maui parrotbill weighs only 1.5 grams (about the weight of a large paperclip!) and needs to be fed every hour between 6 a.m. and 8 p.m. for the first 13 days, with additional midnight feeds for the first 3 nights, which keep us very busy. Being intelligent and slow to become independent, Maui parrotbill chicks are susceptible to imprinting, so when their eyes begin to open, chicks are fed with a sock puppet created to look like the adult bird. When MBCC’s two chicks were old enough, we transferred them to KBCC so that they could all be together, helping them to develop the correct species identity.

A Maui parrotbill youngster

In the wild, Maui parrotbills form monogamous pairs that produce a clutch comprising a single egg. If raised successfully, the fledgling can remain with its parents for up to 17 months, so the species naturally has a low reproductive output. Here, we increase egg production by removing eggs from parental nests for artificial incubation, which can trigger the females to lay more eggs.

The Maui parrotbill is a member of the unique Hawaiian honeycreeper family. Currently, the Maui parrotbill’s range is extremely restricted to high elevation ohi`alehua forests on the eastern slopes of the Haleakala volcano on Maui. The wild population is estimated to be only around 500 birds. Although the population is currently considered to be stable, its distribution is limited primarily to one location, making it susceptible to extinction.

Growing chicks with a puppet "parent" watching over them

The Maui parrotbill is an insectivore that uses its strong, parrot-like beak to remove insect larvae from tree bark and fruit. Providing them with an extensive range of insects for their diet is a challenge, which we try to overcome by providing alternative nutritious foods and plenty of native branches for them to forage. In the last few weeks, we have started experimentally adding silkworms to the flock’s diet. We are hoping the bright yellow pigments contained in the green leaves eaten by the silkworms will ultimately be deposited in the birds’ plumage and enhance the yellow color of the males, making them more attractive to the females. With continuing effort and good fortune, we hope for another successful breeding season next year.

Amy Kilshaw is a research associate at the Maui Bird Conservation Center, part of the San Diego Zoo Hawaii Endangered Bird Conservation Program. Read her previous post, Nene Propagation: End of an Era.

5

Nene Propagation: End of an Era

Nene pair Red Rocket and Nu enjoy retirement.

On June 24, 2011, we handed over four nene (Hawaiian geese) to Haleakala National Park staff, who took them away for release in the crater of the dormant volcano on Maui, Hawaii. These birds had received the routine physical examination before their release and had been micro-chipped and banded for identification in the wild. Nothing unusual there: the San Diego Zoo’s Hawaii Endangered Bird Conservation Program has released 442 nene (pronounced nay nay) since 1996, helping to augment wild populations on the Hawaiian islands of Maui, Kauai, and the Big Island, as well as establishing an entirely new population on Molokai. But importantly, these birds represented the last two breeding pairs from the nene captive propagation flock at the Maui Bird Conservation Center (MBCC).

Robert Taylor, intern, and Sharon Belcher, senior research associate, get the nene ready for release.

In April this year, we had received the news from our partners, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the State of Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife, that it was time to end the captive propagation-and-release program for nene. The nene population throughout Hawaii has risen to nearly 2,000 birds, having been at a low point of only 40 birds in the 1950s, representing a very significant conservation success story. With the population now at this level, captive propagation is no longer considered the most efficient tool for further recovery of the nene. But management of the wild population by our field partners will continue to play a vital role.

So having hatched 395 goslings, we are coming to terms with the fact that we will no longer have gray fuzz-balls as the focus of our attentions over the winter months. Crucially, however, our spirits are lifted by the knowledge that captive propagation and release have been instrumental tools in bringing back the nene from the brink of extinction. It is time for us to say “job well done.”

One pair of nene, known to the staff as Red Rocket and Nu (pictured at top), will remain at the MBCC facility. Red Rocket (a female) was wild hatched in December 1987, though in her 24 years she has never laid a single egg! She happily spends her time with the male, Nu, who was hatched at MBCC in June 1992 from a wild egg. We are very glad to still have these two retirees to keep us company.

Amy Kilshaw is a research associate at the Maui Bird Conservation Center. Read her previous post, Honk if You like Nene.

4

Honk if You Like Nene

A nene shows off its beautiful ruffled neck feathers, which are unique to this species.

On September 26, 2010, the Maui Bird Conservation Center (MBCC) hosted an open house to celebrate the 5th annual Nene Awareness Day in recognition of Hawaii’s endangered state bird, the nene or Hawaiian goose Branta sandvicensis. We welcomed over 150 visitors throughout the day who were treated to newly created educational displays, a tour around our recently refurbished nene pens (see post Nene: Movin’ On Up) and a presentation on the history of nene conservation over the last 100 years.

A popular exhibit was our Native Plant Walk, which was an informative display of the native Hawaiian flora we use throughout our facility for bird enrichment, diet supplementation, and for perches in our aviaries. Another hit with our visitors was an interactive display of how much the birds actually weigh. Did you know that an adult nene weighs as much as a large two-liter bottle of soda? Or a newly-hatched nene gosling weighs about the same as a pack of playing cards?

Amy gives a presentation on Nene Awareness Day.

We welcomed 14 students and 5 teachers from the Maui High School Treehuggers Group. These students learned all about the nene, and one “treehugger” followed up with our staff after the event to write a senior research project.

Nene once had a population estimated at around 25,000 across the Hawaiian Islands. But by the early 1900s, their numbers were reduced to less than 100, mainly by unsustainable hunting, the introduction of mammalian predators, and the destruction of wetland habitat. The State of Hawaii launched its own propagation program in 1949 at Pohakuloa on the Big Island. Meanwhile, a small captive flock was also maintained at the ranch of Herbert Shipman. At that time, there were estimated to be little more than 40 birds.

Intern Charlene Castillo gets excited at an interactive, educational display for young visitors on Nene Awareness Day.

As a Brit myself, I am proud to tell you that a British naturalist and the trust he founded—Sir Peter Scott and the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust (WWT)—were leading proponents in conservation efforts for the nene. Sir Peter and his team proved very successful at rearing nene in captivity, and during the 1960s, 126 nene reared at the WWT in the United Kingdom were flown over to Maui for release at the Haleakala Crater.

The Pohakuloa propagation effort was eventually relocated to our current facility here in Maui. Once known as the Olinda Endangered Species Propagation Facility, the Maui Bird Conservation Center has continued to play a major role in the captive breeding and reintroduction efforts for the nene. Since the Hawaii Endangered Bird Conservation Program took over management of MBCC in 1996, over 425 captive-reared nene have been released onto the islands of Kauai, Maui, Molokai and the Big Island.

Amy Kilshaw is a research associate for the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research at the Maui Bird Conservation Center.