Of all the species found in nature that are inspiring new engineering designs, one would not immediately think of the cockroach as a particularly inspiring animal. But time and time again, especially in the San Francisco Bay area, the cockroach has proven to be a wellspring of information for both biologists and engineers.
The methodology in which biological systems, processes, and elements are studied to draw analogies to be applied to human design challenges is called bioinspiration or biomimicry. The University of California, Berkeley, is leading this interdisciplinary method of design with the departments of integrative biology and engineering teaming up to develop a long list of bioinspired robots. The cockroach, a pest from most perspectives, is their star organism, inspiring generations of wall-climbing, terrain-tackling, and rapid-running robots.
The latest form to come out of their program is a swinging bot. If you’ve ever seen cockroaches scatter when a light is switched on, you know they have pretty impressive evasion tactics. Robert Full, Ron Fearing, and their students discovered an even trickier tactic than scattering: disappearing completely. Cockroaches, geckos, and now robots are capable of inverting from the top of a ledge to the bottom in the blink of an eye. To accomplish this disappearing act, the robot builds up speed, and then runs right off the end of the ledge. Before completely flying off the surface, it grabs the ledge with a hind leg and swings like a pendulum 180 degrees to attach itself to the underside of the same ledge. Cockroaches not only invert themselves on a ledge, but they continue to run on the underside, retaining 75 percent of their running energy.
DASH (Dynamic Autonomous Sprawled Hexapod), the cockroach-inspired robot, is paving the way toward more agile robots, improving search-and-rescue capabilities.